Global Market for Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Antifungal Nanocoatings 2020

Global Market for Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Antifungal Nanocoatings 2020

Future Markets, Date of Publication: Mar 25, 2021, 260 Pages
US$925.00
FM2020

When the current global crisis has abated, efforts must turn to future preventative measures. Nanocoatings can demonstrate up to 99.9998% effectiveness against bacteria, formaldehyde, mold and viruses and are up to 1000 times more efficient than previous technologies available on the market. They can work on multiple levels at the same time: antiviral, bacterial and fungal and self-cleaning. Nanocoatings companies are already partnering with global manufacturers and cities to develop anti-viral facemasks, hazard suits and easily applied surface coatings.

Their use makes it possible to provide enhanced antiviral, antibacterial, mold-reducing and TVOC degrading processes, that are non-toxic and environmentally friendly, allowing for exceptional hygiene standards in all areas of work and life. As a result, it is possible create a healthier living and working environment and to offer holistic solutions to people with a diminished immune system. Nano-based surface coatings prevent the spread of bacteria, fungi and viruses via infected surfaces of so called high-traffic objects, such as door and window handles in public places, hospitals, public buildings, schools, elderly homes etc. 

Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Nanocoatings are available in various material compositions, for healthcare and household surfaces, for indoor and outdoor applications, to protect against corrosion and mildew, as well as for water and air purification. Nanocoatings also reduce surface contamination, are self-cleaning, water-repellent and odor-inhibiting, reducing cleaning and maintenance

Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Nanocoatings can be applied by spraying or dipping and adhere to various surfaces such as glass, metals and various alloys, copper and stainless steel, marble and stone slabs, ceramics and tiles, textiles and plastics.

Nanoparticles of different materials  such as metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanoparticles, and graphene-based materials have demonstrated enhanced anti-microbial and anti-viral activity. The use of inorganic nanomaterials when compared with organic anti-microbial agents is also desirable due to their stability, robustness, and long shelf life. At high temperatures/pressures organic antimicrobial materials are found to be less stable compared to inorganic antimicrobial agents. The various antimicrobial mechanisms of nanomaterials are mostly attributed to their high specific surface area-to-volume ratios, and their distinctive physico-chemical properties.

Anti-viral nanocoatings

Viruses constitute a group of heterogeneous and much simpler organisms. They range in size from 100-300nm, much smaller than bacteria. Viruses are unique in that they have no independent metabolic activities and have to rely solely on infection living hosts to reproduce themselves. Unlike all other life, viruses may contain either DNA or RNA as genetic materials, but not both.

The nucleic materials are surrounded by a protein coat to protect them from harmful agents in the environment. The protein coat also provides the specific binding site necessary for the attachment of virus to its host. Some viruses also contain an outer envelope made up of lipids , polysaccharides , and protein molecules. The lipids and polysaccharides are of host cell organ , and their presence allows a virus to fuse with a host cell and thus gain entry.

A virus not having the outer envelope infects a cell in quit a different manner. Infection is initiated by the attachment of a specialized site on the surface of the protein coat of the virus onto a specific receptor site on the surface of the host cell.

Once this binding is complete viruses can release genetic materials into the host cell and take advantage of the machinery of the host cell to reproduce and assemble themselves. These newly produced viruses are now ready to infect other cells .

Therefore, one of the key processes to disable viruses is through the control of their surface structure, especially their binding sites, so they can no longer recognize the receptor site on the host cells. As many types of nanocoatings attack most effectively on the virus’s surface, they represent an excellent viable technology to destroy the viruses surface structure.

Report contents include:

  • Size in value for the Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Nanocoatings market, and growth rate during the forecast period, 2017-2030. Historical figures are also provided, from 2010.
  • Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Nanocoatings market segments analysis.
  • Size in value for the End-user industries for nanocoatings and growth during the forecast period.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • Market outlook for 2020. 
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for nanocoatings, by type and markets.
  • Antimicrobial, Antiviral, and Antifungal Nanocoatings applications.
  • In-depth analysis of antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal surface treatments. 
  • In-depth analysis of antibacterial and antiviral treatment for antibacterial mask, filter, gloves, clothes and devices. 
  • Over 100 company profiles including products, technology base, target markets and contact details.
  • 260 pages, 71 tables, 86 figures


Global Market for Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Antifungal Nanocoatings 2020
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Aims and objectives of the study 21
1.2 Market definition 21
1.2.1 Properties of nanomaterials 22
1.2.2 Categorization 23

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

3.1 High performance coatings 26
3.2 Nanocoatings 26
3.3 Anti-viral nanocoatings 28
3.4 Market drivers and trends 28
3.5 Global market size and opportunity to 2030 31
3.5.1 End user market for nanocoatings 31
3.5.2 Global revenues for nanocoatings 2010-2030 34
3.5.3 Global revenues for nanocoatings, by market 35
3.5.3.1 The market in 2018 35
3.5.3.2 The market in 2019 37
3.5.3.3 The market in 2030 39
3.5.4 Global revenues by nanocoatings, by type 41
3.5.5 Regional demand for nanocoatings 47
3.6 Market and technical challenges 49

4 NANOCOATINGS TECHNICAL ANALYSIS

4.1 Properties of nanocoatings 51
4.2 Benefits of using nanocoatings 52
4.2.1 Types of nanocoatings 53
4.3 Production and synthesis methods 53
4.4 Hydrophobic coatings and surfaces 65
4.4.1 Hydrophilic coatings 65
4.4.2 Hydrophobic coatings 65
4.4.2.1 Properties 66
4.5 Superhydrophobic coatings and surfaces 67
4.5.1 Properties 67
4.5.2 Durability issues 68
4.5.3 Nanocellulose 68
4.6 Oleophobic and omniphobic coatings and surfaces 69

5 NANOMATERIALS USED IN ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIVIRAL AND ANTIFUNGAL NANOCOATINGS

5.1 GRAPHENE 74
5.1.1 Properties 74
5.1.2 Graphene oxide 75
5.1.3 Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) 76
5.1.4 Markets and applications 77
5.1.5 Commercial activity 78
5.2 SILICON DIOXIDE/SILICA NANOPARTICLES 78
5.2.1 Properties 78
5.2.2 Antimicrobial and antiviral 79
5.2.3 Easy-clean and dirt repellent 80
5.3 NANOSILVER 81
5.3.1 Properties 81
5.3.2 Antimicrobial and antiviral 81
5.3.3 Markets and applications 82
5.3.3.1 Textiles 83
5.3.3.2 Wound dressings 83
5.3.3.3 Consumer products 83
5.3.3.4 Air filtration 83
5.3.4 Commercial activity 83
5.4 TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES 84
5.4.1 Properties 84
5.4.2 Exterior and construction glass coatings 86
5.4.3 Outdoor air pollution 88
5.4.4 Interior coatings 88
5.4.5 Improving indoor air quality 89
5.4.6 Medical facilities 89
5.4.7 Wastewater Treatment 89
5.5 ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES 90
5.5.1 Properties 90
5.5.2 Antimicrobial and antiviral 91
5.6 NANOCEULLOSE 91
5.6.1 Properties 91
5.7 CARBON NANOTUBES 92
5.7.1 Properties 92
5.8 FULLERENES 93
5.8.1 Properties 93
5.9 CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES 94
5.9.1 Properties 94
5.9.2 Wound dressings 95
5.9.3 Packaging coatings and films 96
5.9.4 Food storage 96
5.10 COPPER NANOPARTICLES 96
5.10.1 Properties 96
6 NANOCOATINGS MARKET STRUCTURE 97

7 MARKET ANALYSIS

7.1 ANTI-MICROBIAL AND ANTIVIRAL NANOCOATINGS 100
7.1.1 Market drivers and trends 102
7.1.2 Applications 107
7.1.3 Global market size 108
7.1.3.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 109
7.1.3.2 Global revenues 2010-2030 110
7.1.4 Companies 111
7.2 ANTI-FOULING AND EASY-TO-CLEAN NANOCOATINGS 114
7.2.1 Market drivers and trends 115
7.2.2 Benefits of anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings 115
7.2.3 Applications 116
7.2.4 Global market size 116
7.2.4.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 116
7.2.4.2 Global revenues 2010-2030 118
7.2.5 Companies 120
7.3 SELF-CLEANING (BIONIC) NANOCOATINGS 122
7.3.1 Market drivers and trends 123
7.3.2 Market drivers and trends 123
7.3.3 Benefits of self-cleaning nanocoatings 124
7.3.4 Global market size 124
7.3.4.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 125
7.3.4.2 Global revenues 2010-2030 127
7.3.5 Companies 129
7.4 SELF-CLEANING (PHOTOCATALYTIC) NANOCOATINGS 130
7.4.1 Market drivers and trends 131
7.4.2 Benefits of photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings 132
7.4.3 Applications 132
7.4.3.1 Self-Cleaning Coatings 132
7.4.3.2 Indoor Air Pollution and Sick Building Syndrome 133
7.4.3.3 Outdoor Air Pollution 133
7.4.3.4 Water Treatment 133
7.4.4 Global market size 133
7.4.4.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 133
7.4.4.2 Global revenues 2010-2030 136
7.4.5 Companies 137

8 MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS, BY END USER MARKET

8.1 CONSTRUCTION 141
8.1.1 Market drivers and trends 141
8.1.2 Applications 142
8.1.2.1 Protective coatings for glass, concrete and other construction materials 143
8.1.2.2 Photocatalytic nano-TiO2 coatings 143
8.1.2.3 Anti-graffiti 145
8.1.2.4 UV-protection 145
8.1.2.5 Titanium dioxide nanoparticles 145
8.1.2.6 Zinc oxide nanoparticles 146
8.1.3 Global market size 146
8.1.3.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 146
8.1.3.2 Global revenues 2010-2030 148
8.1.4 Companies 149
8.2 HOUSEHOLD CARE, SANITARY AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY 154
8.2.1 Market drivers and trends 154
8.2.2 Applications 154
8.2.2.1 Self-cleaning and easy-to-clean 154
8.2.2.2 Food preparation and processing 154
8.2.2.3 Indoor pollutants and air quality 155
8.2.3 Global market size 156
8.2.3.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 156
8.2.3.2 Global revenues 2010-2030 157
8.2.4 Companies 159
8.3 MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE 162
8.3.1 Market drivers and trends 162
8.3.2 Applications 163
8.3.2.1 Anti-fouling 164
8.3.2.2 Anti-microbial and infection control 164
8.3.2.3 Nanosilver 164
8.3.2.4 Medical device coatings 165
8.3.3 Global market size 167
8.3.3.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 167
8.3.3.2 Global revenues 2010-2030 168
8.3.4 Companies 169
8.4 TEXTILES AND APPAREL 173
8.4.1 Market drivers and trends 173
8.4.2 Applications 173
8.4.2.1 Protective textiles 174
8.4.3 Global market size 179
8.4.3.1 Nanocoatings opportunity 179
8.4.3.2 Global market revenues 2010-2030 181
8.4.4 Companies 182

9 ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIVIRAL AND ANTIFUNGAL NANOCOATINGS COMPANIES


10 REFERENCES

Tables

Table 1: Categorization of nanomaterials 23
Table 2: Properties of nanocoatings 27
Table 3. Market drivers and trends in nanocoatings 29
Table 4: End user markets for nanocoatings 31
Table 5: Global revenues for nanocoatings, 2010-2030, millions USD, conservative estimate 34
Table 6: Global revenues for nanocoatings, 2018, millions USD, by market 35
Table 7: Estimated revenues for nanocoatings, 2019, millions USD, by market 37
Table 8: Estimated revenues for nanocoatings, 2030, millions USD, by market 39
Table 9: Global revenues for nanocoatings, 2018, millions USD, by type 41
Table 10: Estimated global revenues for nanocoatings, 2019, millions USD, by type 43
Table 11: Estimated revenues for nanocoatings, 2030, millions USD, by type 45
Table 12: Market and technical challenges for nanocoatings 49
Table 13: Technology for synthesizing nanocoatings agents 53
Table 14: Film coatings techniques 55
Table 15: Contact angles of hydrophilic, super hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces 66
Table 16: Disadvantages of commonly utilized superhydrophobic coating methods 68
Table 17: Applications of oleophobic & omniphobic coatings 70
Table 18: Nanomaterials used in nanocoatings and applications 72
Table 19: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings 74
Table 20. Bactericidal characters of graphene-based materials 76
Table 21. Markets and applications for antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings graphene nanocoatings . 77
Table 22. Commercial activity in antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings graphene nanocoatings 78
Table 23. Markets and applications for antimicrobial nanosilver nanocoatings 82
Table 24. Commercial activity in antimicrobial nanosilver nanocoatings 84
Table 25. Types of carbon-based nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent, their mechanisms of action and characteristics 94
Table 26. Mechanism of chitosan antimicrobial action 95
Table 27: Nanocoatings market structure 97
Table 28: Anti-microbial and antiviral nanocoatings-Nanomaterials used, principles, properties and applications 100
Table 29: Nanomaterials utilized in antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings coatings-benefits and applications 105
Table 30: Antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings markets and applications 107
Table 31: Market assessment of antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings 109
Table 32: Opportunity for antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings 109
Table 33: Revenues for antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings, 2010-2030, US$ 110
Table 34: Antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings product and application developers 111
Table 35: Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings-Nanomaterials used, principles, properties and applications 114
Table 36: Market drivers and trends in Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings 115
Table 37: Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings markets, applications and potential addressable market 117
Table 38: Market assessment for anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings 117
Table 39: Revenues for anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings, 2010-2030, US$ 118
Table 40: Anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings product and application developers 120
Table 41: Self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings-Nanomaterials used, principles, properties and applications 122
Table 42: Market drivers and trends in Self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings 123
Table 43: Self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings-Markets and applications 126
Table 44: Market assessment for self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings 126
Table 45: Revenues for self-cleaning nanocoatings, 2010-2030, US$ 127
Table 46: Self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings product and application developers 129
Table 47: Self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings-Nanomaterials used, principles, properties and applications 130
Table 48: Market drivers and trends in photocatalytic nanocoatings 131
Table 49: Photocatalytic nanocoatings-Markets, applications and potential addressable market size by 2027 134
Table 50: Market assessment for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings 135
Table 51: Revenues for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings, 2010-2030, US$ 136
Table 52: Self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings product and application developers 137
Table 53: Market drivers and trends for nanocoatings in the construction market 141
Table 54: Nanocoatings applied in the construction industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized and benefits 142
Table 55: Photocatalytic nanocoatings-Markets and applications 144
Table 56: Revenues for nanocoatings in construction, architecture and exterior protection, 2010-2030, US$ 148
Table 57: Construction, architecture and exterior protection nanocoatings product developers 149
Table 58: Market drivers and trends for nanocoatings in household care and sanitary 154
Table 59: Revenues for nanocoatings in household care, sanitary and indoor air quality, 2010-2030, US$. 157
Table 60: Household care, sanitary and indoor air quality nanocoatings product developers 159
Table 61: Market drivers and trends for nanocoatings in medicine and healthcare 162
Table 62: Nanocoatings applied in the medical industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications 164
Table 63: Types of advanced coatings applied in medical devices and implants 165
Table 64: Nanomaterials utilized in medical implants 166
Table 65: Revenues for nanocoatings in medical and healthcare, 2010-2030, US$ 168
Table 66: Medical and healthcare nanocoatings product developers 170
Table 67: Market drivers and trends for nanocoatings in the textiles and apparel industry 173
Table 68: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof 174
Table 69: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications 176
Table 70: Revenues for nanocoatings in textiles and apparel, 2010-2030, US$ 181
Table 71: Textiles nanocoatings product developers 182

Figures

Figure 1: Global revenues for nanocoatings, 2010-2030, millions USD, conservative estimate 35
Figure 2: Global market revenues for nanocoatings 2018, millions USD, by market 37
Figure 3: Markets for nanocoatings 2018, % 37
Figure 4: Estimated market revenues for nanocoatings 2019, millions USD, by market 39
Figure 5: Estimated market revenues for nanocoatings 2030, millions USD, by market 40
Figure 6: Markets for nanocoatings 2030, % 40
Figure 7: Global revenues for nanocoatings, 2018, millions USD, by type 42
Figure 8: Markets for nanocoatings 2018, by nanocoatings type, % 43
Figure 9: Estimated global revenues for nanocoatings, 2019, millions USD, by type 44
Figure 10: Market for nanocoatings 2030, by nanocoatings type, US$ 46
Figure 11: Market for nanocoatings 2030, by nanocoatings type, % 47
Figure 12: Regional demand for nanocoatings, 2018 48
Figure 13: Regional demand for nanocoatings, 2019 48
Figure 14: Regional demand for nanocoatings, 2030 49
Figure 15: Hydrophobic fluoropolymer nanocoatings on electronic circuit boards 52
Figure 16: Nanocoatings synthesis techniques 54
Figure 17: Techniques for constructing superhydrophobic coatings on substrates 57
Figure 18: Electrospray deposition 58
Figure 19: CVD technique 59
Figure 20: Schematic of ALD 61
Figure 21: SEM images of different layers of TiO2 nanoparticles in steel surface 62
Figure 22: The coating system is applied to the surface.The solvent evaporates 63
Figure 23: A first organization takes place where the silicon-containing bonding component (blue dots in figure 2) bonds covalently with the surface and cross-links with neighbouring molecules to form a strong three-dimensional 63
Figure 24: During the curing, the compounds or- ganise themselves in a nanoscale monolayer. The fluorine-containing repellent component (red dots in figure 3) on top makes the glass hydro- phobic and oleophobic 64
Figure 25: (a) Water drops on a lotus leaf 65
Figure 26: A schematic of (a) water droplet on normal hydrophobic surface with contact angle greater than 90° and (b) water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle > 150° 66
Figure 27: Contact angle on superhydrophobic coated surface 67
Figure 28: Self-cleaning nanocellulose dishware 68
Figure 29: SLIPS repellent coatings 70
Figure 30: Omniphobic coatings 71
Figure 31: Graphair membrane coating 74
Figure 32: Antimicrobial activity of Graphene oxide (GO) 76
Figure 33: Hydrophobic easy-to-clean coating 80
Figure 34 Anti-bacterials mechanism of silver nanoparticle coating 82
Figure 35: Mechanism of photocatalysis on a surface treated with TiO2 nanoparticles 85
Figure 36: Schematic showing the self-cleaning phenomena on superhydrophilic surface 85
Figure 37: Titanium dioxide-coated glass (left) and ordinary glass (right) 87
Figure 38: Self-Cleaning mechanism utilizing photooxidation 87
Figure 39: Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement 88
Figure 40: Schematic of photocatalytic indoor air purification filter 89
Figure 41: Schematic of photocatalytic water purification 90
Figure 42: Types of nanocellulose 92
Figure 43. Mechanism of antimicrobial activity of carbon nanotubes 93
Figure 44: Schematic of typical commercialization route for nanocoatings producer 97
Figure 45 Nanocoatings market by nanocoatings type, 2010-2030, USD 99
Figure 46: Market drivers and trends in antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings 102
Figure 47. Nano-coated self-cleaning touchscreen 109
Figure 48: Revenues for antimicrobial and antiviral nanocoatings, 2010-2030, US$ 111
Figure 49: Anti-fouling treatment for heat-exchangers 116
Figure 50: Markets for anti-fouling and easy clean nanocoatings, by % 117
Figure 51: Potential addressable market for anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings by 2030 118
Figure 52: Revenues for anti-fouling and easy-to-clean nanocoatings 2010-2030, millions USD 120
Figure 53: Self-cleaning superhydrophobic coating schematic 124
Figure 54: Markets for self-cleaning nanocoatings, %, 2018 125
Figure 55: Potential addressable market for self-cleaning (bionic) nanocoatings by 2030 127
Figure 56: Revenues for self-cleaning nanocoatings, 2010-2030, US$ 128
Figure 57: Principle of superhydrophilicity 132
Figure 58: Schematic of photocatalytic air purifying pavement 133
Figure 59: Tokyo Station GranRoof. The titanium dioxide coating ensures long-lasting whiteness 134
Figure 60: Markets for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings 2019, % 134
Figure 61: Potential addressable market for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings by 2030 136
Figure 62: Revenues for self-cleaning (photocatalytic) nanocoatings, 2010-2030, US$ 137
Figure 63 Nanocoatings market by end user sector, 2010-2030, USD 141
Figure 64: Mechanism of photocatalytic NOx oxidation on active concrete road 144
Figure 65: Jubilee Church in Rome, the outside coated with nano photocatalytic TiO2 coatings 144
Figure 66: FN® photocatalytic coating, applied in the Project of Ecological Sound Barrier, in Prague 145
Figure 67 Smart window film coatings based on indium tin oxide nanocrystals 146
Figure 68: Nanocoatings in construction, architecture and exterior protection, by coatings type %, 2019. 147
Figure 69: Potential addressable market for nanocoatings in the construction, architecture and exterior coatings sector by 2030 148
Figure 70: Revenues for nanocoatings in construction, architecture and exterior protection, 2010-2030, US$ 149
Figure 71: Nanocoatings in household care, sanitary and indoor air quality, by coatings type %, 2019 . 157
Figure 72: Potential addressable market for nanocoatings in household care, sanitary and indoor air filtration by 2030 157
Figure 73: Revenues for nanocoatings in household care, sanitary and indoor air quality, 2010-2030, US$ 159
Figure 74: Anti-bacertial sol-gel nanoparticle silver coating 165
Figure 75: Nanocoatings in medical and healthcare, by coatings type %, 2019 167
Figure 76: Potential addressable market for nanocoatings in medical & healthcare by 2030 168
Figure 77: Revenues for nanocoatings in medical and healthcare, 2010-2030, US$ 169
Figure 78: Omniphobic-coated fabric 174
Figure 79: Nanocoatings in textiles and apparel, by coatings type %, 2019 180
Figure 80: Potential addressable market for nanocoatings in textiles and apparel by 2030 180
Figure 81: Revenues for nanocoatings in textiles and apparel, 2010-2030, US$ 182
Figure 82. Lab tests on DSP coatings 201
Figure 83. GrapheneCA anti-bacterial and anti-viral coating 207
Figure 84. Microlyte® Matrix bandage for surgical wounds 213
Figure 85. NanoSeptic surfaces 230
Figure 86. NascNanoTechnology personnel shown applying MEDICOAT to airport luggage carts 232

Date of Publication:
Mar 25, 2021
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
260 Pages