Battery Control Technology: Global Markets

Battery Control Technology: Global Markets

BCC, Date of Publication: Apr 17, 2012, 327 Pages
US$6,650.00
GB-FCB026D

Rechargeable batteries are routinely used in portable product and stationary power applications, including computers, cellular phones, and uninterruptible and emergency power supplies.  More recently, rechargeable batteries have been evolved from relatively low performance industrial vehicles to electric vehicles that rival internal combustion vehicles in performance and exceed their efficiency. This revolution in battery power has been possible through a systems approach that includes advanced batteries, “smart” microcontroller battery chargers, and power conditioners.  This impacts the commercial and consumer electronics market, the transportation market, and the electrical power generation market, among others.

Ultimately, the market for batteries drives the market for battery control technology: chargers, smart batteries, and conditioners.  Batteries are used to accumulate and transport electrical energy.  These functions, power storage and power portability, make batteries essential to today’s industrial and consumer-oriented society.  Although simple batteries have existed for at least two hundred years, the battery industry traces its roots to the early 1900s.  At that time, the commercialization of automobiles and radios created a demand for automotive (starting, lighting, ignition and generator) batteries and portable appliance batteries.  These markets, characterized by primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable) batteries remain the two areas where most batteries are consumed.  With the growth of the markets for secondary batteries, the market for battery control has grown.  Starting in the 1960s, the wider commercialization of sealed nickel-cadmium batteries and then sealed lead-acid batteries created competition between primary and secondary batteries for some consumer applications.  This development also created a market for whole new kinds of battery control technology.

By the end of the Twentieth Century, the global battery market was considered mature, with demand closely related to the sales of either automobiles or various consumer products.  Likewise, in many cases, the market for battery control technology was considered mature.  Since then, there has been a change in this relationship.  For instance, improved microelectronic battery charger controller technology is allowing the commercialization of whole new classes of batteries and is improving the marketability of existing battery systems.  This in turn has allowed the commercialization of products (notably portable computers, cellular phones, multi-functional handheld products, and electric vehicles) that would be impossible without improved battery control technology.  

With this in mind, there are areas where the battery control technology industry could experience the explosive growth usually associated with emerging industries.  Battery designers (mainly electrochemists) and battery charger, conditioner, and converter designers (mainly electrical and electronics specialists) will continue to operate together, with new batteries and new battery control techniques evolving together to produce even higher performance products.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY


Battery control advances and a realignment of the battery industry players must be matched by new marketing attitudes. The battery control technology market is much more fragmented than the battery industry it serves.  On the other hand, battery designers and battery control technology designers now must cooperate to meet more demanding design requirements.  Battery control technology customers include the consuming public, industrial users, and manufacturers who must consider battery control as an integral part of a product’s design.  This report is intended to be the most complete technical, economic and business document of this type on the subject and is designed to provide information of a professional nature.  This report is not intended to constitute a legal or accounting document, nor is it an endorsement of any given product or process.

SCOPE AND FORMAT

First, this report organizes the battery control technology market into five sub-sectors based on the type of consumer:

  • Automotive
  • Traction, marine and aviation
  • Portable products
  • Stationary (UPS, emergency, remote)
  • On-road electric vehicles


Then, the market is organized by type of battery control technology:

  • Battery chargers
  • Battery conditioners
  • Smart battery systems


Each of these divisions is comprised of different market sub-sectors, and each is examined in terms of past, present and future sales.  Historic wholesale markets for 2006 and 2011 forecast 2016 market figures are provided.  Predicted markets and compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) are expressed in constant Year 2012 dollars.  A detailed discussion of the companies involved is provided for each battery control market sub-sector. Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. In some cases, several possible development scenarios are presented.  Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars.  When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the global battery control market and will be of interest to manufacturers of battery chargers and battery charger components, as well as a variety of portable products, stationary power sources, and vehicle makers. This report will also be valuable to those involved in secondary battery development and marketing, as well as those offering competing nonrechargeable batteries. Current and potential battery consumers, as well as those in the military and the medical professions, can determine existing or potential battery control markets. These end users will learn what designs battery systems will and will not allow.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

  • The global wholesale level market for battery control technology was nearly $86 billion in 2011 and should grow to more than $124 billion (constant 2012 dollars) by 2016 under a consensus scenario, a CAGR of 7%.
  • Battery chargers currently represent the largest of the three battery control technology market sectors, with 2011 sales of over $48 billion. BCC expects this market to reach $69.6 billion by 2016, a CAGR of 7.6%.
  • Smart batteries (including both nickel metal hydride and lithium-ion) are the second largest market sector, especially those used in portable products and on-road electric vehicles.  Smart batteries represent $32 billion in 2011 and are expected to grow to more than $49 billion by 2016, a CAGR of 8.5%.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 
    STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES   1
    REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY  2
    SCOPE AND FORMAT  2
    METHODOLOGY   3
    INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
    ANALYST CREDENTIALS  4
    RELATED REPORTS   4
    DISCLAIMER   5

CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY
    SUMMARY  6
         SUMMARY (CONTINUED)   7
   SUMMARY TABLE BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SALES AND
     SHIPMENTS SUMMARY: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
     2016 ($ MILLIONS)   8
   SUMMARY FIGURE A BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SALES
     AND SHIPMENTS SUMMARY: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-2016
     ($ MILLIONS/MILLION UNITS)   8
   SUMMARY FIGURE B SHARE OF BATTERY CONTROL
     TECHNOLOGY SALES AND SHIPMENTS, 2011 (%)  9

CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW: BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY 
    BATTERY CHARGERS  10
         BATTERY CHARGER BACKGROUND   10
             Battery Charger Background (Continued)   11
         BATTERY CHARGER COMPONENTS 12
             Rectifiers  12
             Transformers   13
             Battery Charger Regulators, Testers, and Meters   13
             Microcontrollers   14
             Packaging   14
         BATTERY CHARGER COMPANIES 15
   TABLE 1 BATTERY CHARGER COMPANIES   16
   TABLE 1 (CONTINUED)  17
                  BATTERY CHARGER MARKETS AND PREDICTION  18
   TABLE 2 TOTAL BATTERY CHARGER SALES AND SHIPMENTS:
     CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   18
   TABLE 2 (CONTINUED)   19
         BATTERY CONDITIONERS   19
             BATTERY CONDITIONER BACKGROUND   19
             BATTERY POWER CONDITIONER COMPANIES  20
   TABLE 3 BATTERY CONDITIONER COMPANIES   20
                    BATTERY POWER CONDITIONER MARKETS AND
                     PREDICTION   21
   TABLE 4 TOTAL BATTERY CONDITIONER SALES AND SHIPMENTS:
     CONSENSUS SCENARIO ($ MILLIONS)   21
         SMART BATTERY SYSTEM MARKETS  21
             SMART BATTERY BACKGROUND   21
                  Smart Battery Background (Continued)  22
                  Smart Battery Background (Continued)  23
             SMART BATTERY COMPANIES   24
   TABLE 5 SMART BATTERY SYSTEM (SBS) STAKEHOLDERS  25
   TABLE 6 SMART BATTERY AND SMART BATTERY CHARGER
     COMPANIES 25
   TABLE 6 (CONTINUED)   26
   TABLE 7 SMART BATTERY OEM COMPANIES   27
         SMART BATTERY SYSTEM MARKETS & PREDICTION   27
   TABLE 8 TOTAL SMART BATTERY SALES AND SHIPMENTS:
     CONSENSUS SCENARIO ($ MILLIONS)   27
   TABLE 8 (CONTINUED)  28

CHAPTER FOUR: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS 
    THE DRIVING FORCES OF THE BATTERY CONTROL
      TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY  29
         DRIVING FORCE ONE: IMPROVING BATTERY CHARGER
              TECHNICAL MATURITY  29
         DRIVING FORCE TWO: IMPROVING BATTERY TECHNICAL
              MATURITY   30
         DRIVING FORCE THREE: EMERGING BATTERY/BATTERY
              CONTROL APPLICATIONS  30
         DRIVING FORCE FOUR: NEW BATTERY/BATTERY
              CONTROL DISTRIBUTION OPPORTUNITIES  31
         DRIVING FORCE FIVE: AUTOMOTIVE SMART BATTERIES  31
         DRIVING FORCE SIX: THE PROMISE OF THE ELECTRIC
              VEHICLE BATTERY CHARGER MARKET   31
         DRIVING FORCE 7: PATENT ACTIVITY   32
   TABLE 9 BATTERY CONTROL PATENT AWARDS  33
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)   34
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)   35
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)   36
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)   37
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)   38
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)  39
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)   40
   TABLE 9 (CONTINUED)   41
   TABLE 10 BATTERY CONTROL PATENT ACTIVITY  41
 TABLE 10 (CONTINUED)   42
TABLE 10 (CONTINUED)   43
         DRIVING FORCE EIGHT: SMART BATTERY SAFETY  43
              Background  43
                    Background (Continued)   44
              Alternative Designs   45
              Recent Patents that Lithium-ion Address Battery Safety  46
                    Title: Battery pack  46
                    Title: Secondary battery with protective circuit  47
                    Title: Battery capacity calculating method 47
                    Title: System and method for efficiently
                       implementing a battery controller for an
                       electronic device   47
                           Title: System  (Continued)   48
                           Title: System  (Continued)   49
                           Title: System  (Continued)   50
         DRIVING FORCE NINE: GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND
           SUBSIDIES   51
              Driving Force Nine: (Continued)  52
              Driving Force Nine: (Continued)  53
     BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY MARKET SEGMENTATION 54
     BATTERY CONTROL INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION FACTORS   55
TABLE 11 BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY COMPANY COUNTS   55
TABLE 11 (CONTINUED)  56
TABLE 12 BATTERY CONTROL COMPANIES BY MARKETS SERVED
  AND PRODUCT TYPE  56
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)  57
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   58
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   59
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)  60
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   61
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   62
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   63
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   64
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   65
TABLE 12 (CONTINUED)   66
     BATTERY CONTROL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE
       PRACTICES   66
         INDUSTRIAL TRACTION, STATIONARY MARINE AND
           AVIATION BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
           INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES  66
         EV CHARGING STATION BATTERY CONTROL
           TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE
           PRACTICES  67
              CONSUMER/COMMERCIAL AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY
               CONTROL TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT
               AND TRADE PRACTICES   67
             CONSUMER/COMMERCIAL EXTERNAL BATTERY
               CHARGER INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE
               PRACTICES  68
             SPECIALTY BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
               INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES  68
         BATTERY CONTROL CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION   69
   TABLE 13 U S  BATTERY CONTROL CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION
     (% SALES)  69
             MASS MERCHANDISER CHANNEL DISCUSSION   69
             SPECIALTY MERCHANDISER RETAIL OUTLET CHANNEL
               DISCUSSION  70
             MAIL ORDER AND OR WEB SALES TO PUBLIC CHANNEL
               DISCUSSION  70
             COMMERCIAL PURCHASE CHANNEL DISCUSSION  70
             GOVERNMENT PURCHASE CHANNEL DISCUSSION   70
         BATTERY CONTROL INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES   71
   TABLE 14 REPRESENTATIVE BATTERY CONTROL PRODUCT
     PRICES ($)   71

CHAPTER FIVE: BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY MARKET
  SUMMARY   72
   TABLE 15 TOTAL BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND SHIPMENTS:
      CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   72
   TABLE 15 (CONTINUED)   73
   TABLE 15 (CONTINUED)   74
   FIGURE 1 TOTAL BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND SHIPMENTS:
      CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS)  75
   FIGURE 2 BATTERY CONTROL SHIPMENTS, BY TYPE OF
      TECHNOLOGY, 2011 (%) 75
   FIGURE 2 (CONTINUED)  76
   FIGURE 3 BATTERY CONTROL VALUE, BY TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY,
      2011 (%)  76
   FIGURE 3 (CONTINUED)  77
   TABLE 16 TOTAL BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND SHIPMENTS
      SUMMARY, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)  77
   TABLE 17 TOTAL BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND SHIPMENTS:
      CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   78
   TABLE 17 (CONTINUED)   79

CHAPTER SIX: BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
    AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CONTROL MARKET  80
                AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CONTROL MARKET
                 BACKGROUND  80
               AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CONTROL COMPANIES   81
TABLE 18 AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CONTROL COMPANIES   82
               AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CONTROL MARKETS AND
                 PREDICTION   82
TABLE 19 AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CHARGER INCENTIVES AND
  DISINCENTIVES  83
TABLE 20 GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND
  SHIPMENTS: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($
  MILLIONS)  84
TABLE 21 GLOBAL AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND
  SHIPMENTS BY REGION: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
  2016 ($ MILLIONS)   85
     TRACTION MARINE AND AVIATION BATTERY CONTROL
       MARKET  85
         TRACTION, MARINE AND AVIATION BATTERY CONTROL
            BACKGROUND  85
         TYPES OF TRACTION, MARINE AND AVIATION
            BATTERIES  86
         TRACTION, MARINE AND AVIATION BATTERY CONTROL
            COMPANIES  87
TABLE 22 LOW SPEED COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL ELECTRIC
  VEHICLE MAKERS  88
TABLE 23 TRACTION, MARINE, AND AVIATION BATTERY
  CONTROL COMPANIES  88
TABLE 23 (CONTINUED)   89
               TRACTION, MARINE AND AVIATION BATTERY CONTROL
                 MARKETS AND PREDICTION   89
TABLE 24 INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL VEHICLE MARKET
  DRIVERS  90
                        Traction, Marine And Aviation  (Continued)   91
TABLE 25 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC, AND PESSIMISTIC
  COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL SCENARIOS  92
TABLE 26 TOTAL GLOBAL COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL VEHICLE
  MARKET SCENARIOS, THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF UNITS)  93
TABLE 27 GLOBAL TRACTION, MARINE, AND AVIATION BATTERY
  CONTROL SALES AND SHIPMENTS: CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
  THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   94
TABLE 28 GLOBAL TRACTION, MARINE, AND AVIATION SALES
  AND SHIPMENTS BY REGION: CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
  THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   94
     PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CONTROL MARKET  95
 TABLE 29 PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT
  DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE  96
TABLE 29 (CONTINUED)   97
              PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CONTROL BACKGROUND   97
                  Internal Portable Product Battery Charger Background  98
                  External Portable Product Battery Charger Background   99
              PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CONTROL COMPANIES   100
TABLE 30 PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CONTROL COMPANIES   100
TABLE 30 (CONTINUED)   101
TABLE 31 PORTABLE PRODUCT SMART BATTERY COMPANIES  102
              PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CONTROL MARKETS &
                PREDICTION   103
TABLE 32 PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER AND
  BATTERY CONDITIONER GROWTH DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS  103
TABLE 33 IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT SMART BATTERY
  GROWTH DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS  104
TABLE 33 (CONTINUED)   105
TABLE 33 (CONTINUED)   106
TABLE 34 SMART BATTERY GROWTH DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS   107
                        Portable Product Battery  (Continued)  108
TABLE 35 AVERAGE BATTERY CHARGER PRICES, THROUGH 2016
  ($ PER UNIT)   109
TABLE 36 GLOBAL PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CONTROL
  SALES AND SHIPMENTS: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
  2016 ($ MILLIONS)   110
TABLE 37 GLOBAL PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CONTROL
  SALES AND SHIPMENTS BY REGION: CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
  THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   110
TABLE 37 (CONTINUED)   111
TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUM
  INTERNAL/OEM CHARGERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 ($
  MILLIONS)  111
TABLE 38 (CONTINUED)   112
TABLE 39 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE PRODUCT SMART
  BATTERIES BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   112
TABLE 39 (CONTINUED)  113
     STATIONARY BATTERY CONTROL MARKET  113
          STATIONARY BATTERY CONTROL BACKGROUND  113
          STATIONARY BATTERY BACKGROUND   114
               Uninterruptible Power Supply Battery Control
                 Technology  114
                    Uninterruptible Power   (Continued)  115
          EMERGENCY LIGHTING BATTERY CONTROL
            TECHNOLOGY  116
               REMOTE AND PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER STORAGE
                BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY  116
              STATIONARY BATTERY CONTROL COMPANIES  117
TABLE 40 STATIONARY BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
  COMPANIES 118
              STATIONARY BATTERY CONTROL MARKETS AND
                PREDICTION   118
                   Stationary Battery   (Continued) 119
TABLE 41 GLOBAL STATIONARY BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND
  SHIPMENTS: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($
  MILLIONS)  120
TABLE 42 GLOBAL STATIONARY BATTERY CONTROL SALES AND
  SHIPMENTS BY REGION: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
  2016 ($ MILLIONS)   121
     ON-ROAD ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY CONTROL MARKETS  121
         ON-ROAD ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY CONTROL
           BACKGROUND  121
              On-road Electric Vehicle   (Continued)  122
              On-road Electric Vehicle   (Continued)  123
         HISTORIC TRENDS  124
TABLE 43 ELECTRIC VEHICLE TIMELINE, 1828-2011  124
                        Historic Trends (Continued)   125
                        Historic Trends (Continued)   126
                        Historic Trends (Continued)   127
                        Historic Trends (Continued)   128
TABLE 44 PROJECTED ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
  REDUCTIONS FROM PHEVS IN THE YEAR 2050 (MILLION MT)  129
TABLE 45 PEAK NEW VEHICLE MARKET SHARE IN 2050 FOR THE
  THREE PHEV ADOPTION SCENARIOS (%) 130
                  Historic Trends (Continued)   131
                  Historic Trends (Continued)   132
                  Historic Trends (Continued)   133
              ON-ROAD ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY CONTROL
                TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES   134
TABLE 46 EV AND HEV BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
  COMPANIES 134
TABLE 46 (CONTINUED)   135
              ON-ROAD EV BATTERY CONTROL MARKETS AND
                PREDICTION   135
TABLE 47 EV AND EV BATTERY CONTROL MARKET DRIVERS   136
TABLE 48 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC, AND PESSIMISTIC BATTERY­
  POWERED VEHICLE SCENARIOS  137
TABLE 48 (CONTINUED)   138
    TABLE 49 GLOBAL EV MARKET: CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
     THROUGH 2016 (THOUSANDS OF UNITS)  138
   TABLE 50 GLOBAL EV MARKET: CONSENSUS, PESSIMISTIC, AND
     OPTIMISTIC SCENARIOS, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   139
   TABLE 51 GLOBAL ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY CONTROL SALES
     AND SHIPMENTS BY TYPE: CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH
     2016 ($ MILLIONS)   140
   TABLE 51 (CONTINUED)   141
   TABLE 52 GLOBAL ON-ROAD ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY
     CONTROL SALES AND SHIPMENTS BY REGION: CONSENSUS
     SCENARIO, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   141
   TABLE 53 GLOBAL EV MARKET: CONSENSUS, PESSIMISTIC, AND
     OPTIMISTIC SCENARIOS, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   142

CHAPTER SEVEN: BATTERY CHARGER COMPANY PROFILES
    350GREEN  143
           PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   143
    A123SYSTEMS   144
           PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   144
                      Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   145
                      Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   146
    AAA  147
           PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   147
    ABACUS CONTROLS INC    148
           PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
                CONDITIONERS  148
    ABSL POWER (AEA BATTERY SYSTEMS, AGM BATTERIES LTD )  148
           PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   148
    ABSOPULSE ELECTRONICS   149
           PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   149
           PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   149
    ACER   150
           PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   150
    ACTION BUSINESS SUPPLIERS INC    150
           PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   150
    ADCON ELECTRONICS, INC   151
           PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   151
           PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
                CHARGERS  151
    ADVANCED BATTERY SYSTEMS, LLC 152
           PRODUCT FOCUS; BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
                BATTERIES  152
    ADVANCED BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES, INC  (ABAT)  152
           PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   153
    ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES, INC  (POWER COMPONENTS)   154
      PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS  155
ADS POWER RESOURCE   155
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
       CONDITIONERS  155
ADVANCED POWER AND CONTROLS  155
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
       CONDITIONERS  155
AEROVIRONMENT INC   155
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   156
AKER WADE POWER TECHNOLOGIES  157
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   157
ALURATEK  157
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
       CONDITIONERS  157
ALLEGRO MICROSYSTEMS, INC   157
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
       CONDITIONERS  158
AMERICAN BATTERY CHARGING INC  158
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   158
AMETEK   158
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   158
AMERICAN POWER CONVERSION (APC)  158
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   159
ANALOG DEVICES 159
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
       BATTERIES  159
APPLE COMPUTER, INC 159
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
       BATTERIES  159
APPLIED POWER, INC   160
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   160
APX TECHNOLOGIES, INC 160
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
       CONDITIONERS  160
AROTECH CORP    161
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   161
ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT CORP 161
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   161
ASTRODYNE CORP  (AUDAX GROUP)  162
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
       CONDITIONERS  162
ASTROFLIGHT INC  162
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   162
ATMEL CORPORATION   163
      PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
         BATTERIES, BATTERY CONDITIONERS  163
AXEON  164
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
         BATTERIES  164
BATTERIES BATTERIES, INC   164
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   165
BATTERIES PLUS   165
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   165
BATTERY-BIZ  165
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   165
BATTERY SYSTEMS, INC    166
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   166
BATTERY TECHNOLOGY, INC  (BTI)  166
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   166
BENQ  166
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   166
BESCOR VIDEO   167
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
         BATTERIES  167
BETTER PLACE   167
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   167
BOLLORÉ AND PININFARINA   168
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
         CHARGERS  168
BOSTON POWER   169
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   169
BREN-TRONICS  170
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
         BATTERIES  170
BST SYSTEMS, INC   171
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   171
BYD BATTERIES   171
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   171
CADEX  171
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   172
CAR CHARGING GROUP 173
C&D TECHNOLOGIES, INC   174
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CONDITIONERS  174
CELL-CON  174
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
         BATTERIES  174
CHINA BAK BATTERY, INC    175
     PRODUCT FOCUS; SMART BATTERIES   176
 CHRYSLER   177
CLIPLIGHT, INC    178
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   178
CLIPPERCREEK  179
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   179
CLUB CAR (INGERSOLL RAND)   179
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGER   179
COLUMBIA PAR CAR   180
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   180
COULOMB TECHNOLOGIES INC   180
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   180
                Product Focus:  (Continued)   181
COMPAL ELECTRONICS   182
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   182
CURTIS INSTRUMENTS  182
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
          CONDITIONERS  183
CUSTOM POWER SYSTEMS  183
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CONDITIONERS  183
CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORP    183
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   183
CT&T   183
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   183
DAIMLER  184
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   184
                Product Focus: Battery   (Continued)  185
                Product Focus: Battery   (Continued)  186
                Product Focus: Battery   (Continued)  187
D&B POWER, INC   188
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CONDITIONERS, BATTERY
          CHARGERS  188
DELL   188
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   188
DELPHI AUTOMOTIVE LLP  188
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   189
DELTRAN CORPORATION  190
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   190
DEPENDABLE POWER SYSTEMS  190
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CONDITIONERS  190
DIVERSIFIED POWER INTERNATIONAL, LLC   190
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   191
DURACELL INTERNATIONAL  191
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   191
                Product Focus: Battery Chargers (Continued)   192
 DYNAGE POWER & MAGNETICS   193
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
        CONDITIONERS  193
DYNASTY ELECTRIC VEHICLES LTD    194
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   194
EATON CORP   194
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   195
ECOTALITY NORTH AMERICA  196
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   196
             Product Focus: Battery Chargers (Continued)   197
EIC LABORATORIES  198
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   198
ELECTRIC CAR CORP    198
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   198
ELETRA AUTOMOTIVE (DIV  GOTTLIEB INVENTIONS, INC )   199
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   199
ELECTROVAYA (ELECTROFUEL)  199
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   199
             Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   200
ELEKTROMOTIVE LTD    201
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   202
ELTEK VALERE  203
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   203
ENER1, INC  (ENERDEL)  203
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   203
             Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   204
ENERSYS, INC   205
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   205
EFACEC  206
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   206
ENERGIZER   207
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
        CHARGERS  207
ENERIZE CORP  (FIFE BATTERIES)   208
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   208
ENGINEERING DESIGN & SALES   209
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   209
E-ONE MOLI ENERGY   209
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   209
ERICSSON  210
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGER   210
EUAUTO TECHNOLOGY LTD   210
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   211
EVATRAN (PLUGLESS POWER)   211
      PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   211
EV CONNECT  212
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   213
FORD MOTOR CO 213
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
        CONDITIONERS  213
            Product focus: Battery Chargers,   (Continued)  214
FREEPLAY ENERGY PLC  215
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   215
FRIWO, INC    216
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
        CONDITIONERS  216
FUJITSU LTD (FUJITSU MICROELECTRONICS)  216
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   216
GENERAL ELECTRIC   217
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   217
GENERAL MOTORS COMPANY  217
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
        CHARGERS  217
            Product Focus: Smart Batteries,   (Continued) 218
            Product Focus: Smart Batteries,   (Continued) 219
            Product Focus: Smart Batteries,   (Continued) 220
GIGABYTE TECHNOLOGY  221
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   221
GLOBTEK, INC    222
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   222
GOODALL MANUFACTURING 222
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   222
GOOGLE   222
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   223
GP BATTERIES (GOLD PEAK INTERNATIONAL) 224
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
        CONDITIONERS  224
GREATBATCH, INC    225
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
        CONDITIONERS  225
GRIDTEST SYSTEMS 226
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   226
HALOIPT (QUALCOMM)  226
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   226
HARDING ENERGY, INC   227
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   227
HITACHI MAXELL CORP   228
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
            BATTERIES  228
HLK & ASSOCIATES, INC    228
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   229
HM ELECTRONICS, INC    229
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   229
HONDA   229
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   229
                  Product Focus: Battery Chargers (Continued)   230
HONEYWELL BATTERIES  231
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   231
HP CO    231
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   231
HTC   232
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   232
HYB BATTERY CO , LTD  (HUA-YUE-BAO BATTERY)  233
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   233
HUANYU BATTERY  233
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   233
IGO  233
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   233
INSIGNIA 234
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   234
INDUSTRIAL BATTERY ENGINEERING  234
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   234
INDUSTRIES INTERNATIONAL, INC  (INDI)  234
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   235
INTEL CORP    235
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   235
INTERMEC TECHNOLOGIES CORP    236
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   236
INTERNATIONAL BATTERY   236
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   236
INTERSIL CORP    237
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
            CONDITIONERS  237
IOMEGA CORP  238
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   238
IOTA ENGINEERING  238
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
            CONDITIONERS  238
IQ POWER  238
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   238
ISL PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL, LTD   239
         PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   239
ITAUTEC  239
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   240
JEROME INDUSTRIES CORP    240
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   240
JOHNSON CONTROLS   240
        PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   240
                   Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   241
                   Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   242
KEYSTONE BATTERY CORP   243
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   243
KOEHLER LIGHTING  243
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   243
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N V   243
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   244
KUSSMAUL ELECTRONICS CO , INC 244
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   244
LA MARCHE MANUFACTURING   244
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   244
LANIX 245
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   245
LENMAR ENTERPRISES INC 245
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   245
LENOVO GROUP   245
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   245
LESTER ELECTRICAL INC 246
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   246
LEVITON MANUFACTURING CO  LTD   246
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   246
                   Product Focus: Battery Chargers (Continued)   247
LG  248
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   248
LIND ELECTRONIC DESIGN  248
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   248
LITHIUM TECHNOLOGY CORP  (GAIA)   249
        PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   249
                   Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   250
                   Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   251
LUMENEO  252
        PRODUCT FOCUS : BATTERY CHARGER  252
MAC MOTOR & CURRENT  253
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   253
MAGNA INTERNATIONAL  253
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   253
 MAGNETEK   253
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CONDITIONERS  253
MATHEWS BATTERY ASSOCIATES  254
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   254
MAXELL CORPORATION   254
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   254
MAXIM INTEGRATED PRODUCTS, INC 254
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
        CHARGERS  254
MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGY, INC  255
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
        BATTERIES  255
MICRO POWER  255
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
        CHARGERS  255
MICROSOFT   256
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   256
MIDTRONICS   256
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   256
MILES ELECTRIC VEHICLES (CODA)   257
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   257
MITSUBISHI INTERNATIONAL   257
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   257
MITSUBISHI MOTORS   258
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   258
MOTIVE ENERGY, INC    259
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   259
MOTOROLA, INC   259
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
        CONDITIONERS  260
MYERS MOTORS   260
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   260
NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORP   261
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
        CHARGERS  261
NEC CORP  (E-ONE MOLI ENERGY)  261
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   261
NEW ENERGY SYSTEMS GROUP  262
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   262
NEXERGY   263
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
        CHARGERS  263
NISSAN   263
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   263
                   Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   264
                  Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   265
                  Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   266
                  Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   267
NEWMAR  268
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   268
NOKIA CELLULAR SYSTEMS   268
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   268
NOVA ELECTRIC (TECHNOLOGY DYNAMICS, INC )   268
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CONDITIONERS, BATTERY
            CHARGERS  269
O2MICRO INTERNATIONAL LTD    269
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
            BATTERIES  269
ONEAC CORP   269
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CONDITIONERS  269
PANASONIC   269
       PRODUCT FOCUS; SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
            CHARGERS  270
PHILIPS GLOBAL 270
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
            CHARGERS  271
POSITIVO INFORMATICA (GRUPO POSITIVO)   271
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   271
POWER PRODUCTS INC    271
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   271
POWER-SONIC CORP   271
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   272
PROMARK ELECTRONICS  272
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
            CONDITIONERS  272
PURE ENERGY VISIONS INC  (ENERGY VISIONS, INC )   273
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   273
QUALLION LLC   273
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   274
QUICK CHARGE CORP    274
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   274
RECHARGE SOLUTIONS INTERNATIONAL  274
RIM  275
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   275
SAFT  276
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   276
                  Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   277
SAMSUNG  278
      PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
          CHARGERS  278
                Product Focus: Smart Batteries,   (Continued) 279
SANYO ELECTRIC CO , LTD  (PANASONIC) 280
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   280
                Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   281
                Product Focus: Smart Batteries (Continued)   282
SB LIMOTIVE CO  LTD  (COBASYS)  283
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   283
SCHAUER MANUFACTURING CORP    284
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   284
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC  285
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   285
SEGWAY   285
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   285
SENS   286
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
          CONDITIONERS  286
SETO HOLDINGS, INC   286
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   287
SHARP ELECTRONICS CORP   287
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   287
SIEMENS AG (POWER GENERATION DIVISION)   287
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   287
SMITH ELECTRIC VEHICLES (TANFIELD GROUP)   288
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   288
SOCIETE DE VEHICULES ELECTRIQUES (SVE) (DASSAULT AND
   HEULIEZ)  288
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   289
SONY CORP 289
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, SMART
          BATTERIES  289
                Product Focus: Battery Chargers,   (Continued)   290
SOUTHWEST ELECTRONIC ENERGY CORP   291
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   291
SPECTRUM BRANDS (RAYOVAC, BLACK & DECKER, VARTA
   CONSUMER BATTERIES)  291
     PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
          CHARGERS  292
SPLASHPOWER   293
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   293
TAMURA CORP  OF AMERICA  293
     PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   293
TANDY CORP  (RADIO SHACK)  293
        PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   294
TE CONNECTIVITY  294
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   294
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (TI)   294
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   294
TOSHIBA LTD    295
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES, BATTERY
            CHARGERS  295
TOYOTA  296
       TOYOTA (CONTINUED)  297
       TOYOTA (CONTINUED)  298
       TOYOTA (CONTINUED)  299
TRIPP-LITE  300
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   300
TRITRONICS, INC   300
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   300
ULTRALIFE BATTERIES, INC  (MCDOWELL RESEARCH)  301
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   301
UNIROSS BATTERIES CORP  301
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   301
VALENCE TECHNOLOGY, INC  302
       PRODUCT FOCUS: SMART BATTERIES   302
VANNER POWER GROUP  303
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
            CONDITIONERS  303
VENTURE TECHNOLOGIES, INC  304
       SMART BATTERIES   304
WHEEGO ELECTRIC CARS   304
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   304
WITRICITY CORPORATION  305
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   305
XANTREX TECHNOLOGY  306
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
            CONDITIONERS  306
XENOTRONIX, INC   307
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   307
ZAP  307
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   307
ZENN MOTOR COMPANY  308
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   308
ZILOG INC    309
       PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS, BATTERY
            CONDITIONERS  309
ZTE  309
                  PRODUCT FOCUS: BATTERY CHARGERS   309

APPENDIX A: BATTERIES AND BATTERY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
    BATTERY BACKGROUND 310
    BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS   311
         VOLTAGE  311
         CAPACITY 311
         SHELF LIFE  311
         DRAIN  312
         SAFETY  312
               Safety (Continued)   313
         ENERGY DENSITY   314
         POWER   314
         RECHARGE TIME   314
         CYCLE LIFE  315
         DISPOSAL FACTORS   315
         COMMERCIAL ENERGY STORAGE CHARACTERISTICS  316
               Battery Characteristics by Type   316
   TABLE 54 COMMERCIAL SECONDARY BATTERY TYPES  317

APPENDIX B: COMPETING POWER SYSTEMS

    CAPACITIVE ENERGY STORAGE  318
   TABLE 55 COMPARISON BETWEEN CAPACITIVE AND
     ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE  319
        NUCLEAR BATTERIES  320
            NUCLEAR BATTERIES (CONTINUED)   321
        FUEL CELLS  322
            PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  323
            ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  324
            PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELLS   324
            SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS   324
            MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS   325
            AIR CELLS   325
                 Zinc-air Cells  325
                 Aluminum-Air Cells  326
            FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE 327

Date of Publication:
Apr 17, 2012
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
327 Pages
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