Global Market for Carbon Nanotubes

Global Market for Carbon Nanotubes

Future Markets, Date of Publication: Feb 2, 2016, 534 Pages
US$1,440.00
FM3854

The carbon nanotubes market

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted huge attention over the past two decades, based on their extraordinary physical and chemical properties that are a result of their intrinsic nano-sized one-dimensional nature. Once the most promising of all nanomaterials, CNTs face stiff competition in conductive applications from graphene and other 2D materials and in mechanically enhanced composites from nanocellulose. However, after considerable research efforts, numerous multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-enhanced products are commercially available. Super-aligned CNT arrays, films and yarns have found applications in consumer electronics, batteries, polymer composites, aerospace, sensors, heaters, filters and biomedicine. Large-scale industrial production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been initiated, promising new market opportunities in transparent conductive films, transistors, sensors and memory devices. SWNTs are regarded as one of the most promising candidates to utilized as building blocks in next generation electronics.

WHAT DOES THE REPORT INCLUDE?

  • Comprehensive quantitative data and forecasts for the global carbon nanotubes market to 2025
  • Qualitative insight and perspective on the current market and future trends in end user markets
  • End user market analysis and technology timelines
  • Financial estimates for the markets carbon nanotubes will impact
  • Tables and figures illustrating carbon nanotubes market size
  • Full company profiles of carbon nanotubes producers and application developers including technology descriptions and end user markets targeted



TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2.1 Exceptional properties 37

2.2 Products and applications 39

2.3 Threat from the graphene market 41

2.4 Production 42

1.1.1 Multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) production 42

1.1.2 Single-walled nanotube (SWNT) production 44

2.5 Global demand for carbon nanotubes 47

2.5.1 Current products 49

1.1.3 Future products 50

2.6 Market drivers and trends 51

1.1.4 Electronics 51

1.1.4.1 EMI/RFI shielding 51

1.1.4.2 Transparent conductive film 51

1.1.4.3 Silicon replacement 52

1.1.5 Electric vehicles and lithium-ion batteries 52

2.7 Market and production challenges 53

1.1.6 Safety issues 53

1.1.7 Dispersion 55

1.1.8 Synthesis and supply quality 55

1.1.9 Cost 56

1.1.10 Competition from other materials 57

2.8 Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene 57

3 INTRODUCTION

3.1 Properties of nanomaterials 60

3.2 Categorization 61

3.3 CARBON NANOTUBES 63

1.1.11 Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) 64

1.1.12 Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) 65

1.1.12.1 Single-chirality 68

1.1.13 Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) 69

1.1.14 Few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) 70

1.1.15 Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs) 71

1.1.16 Carbon ONIONS 72

1.1.17 Fullerenes 73

1.1.18 Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) 74

3.4 Properties 76

3.5 Applications of carbon nanotubes 77

1.1.19 High volume applications 77

1.1.20 Low volume applications 78

1.1.21 Novel applications 78

4 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH GRAPHENE

4.1 Comparative properties 80

4.2 Cost and production 82

4.3 Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids 84

4.4 Competitive market analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene 85

5 OTHER 2D MATERIALS

5.1 Phosphorene 89

5.1.1 Properties 90

5.1.2 Applications 92

5.1.2.1 Electronics 92

5.1.2.2 Thermoelectrics 92

5.1.2.3 Batteries 92

5.1.2.4 Photodetectors 93

5.1.3 Recent research news 93

5.2 Silicene 95

5.2.1 Properties 96

5.2.2 Applications 97

5.2.2.1 Electronics 97

5.2.2.2 Photovoltaics 99

5.2.2.3 Thermoelectrics 99

5.2.2.4 Batteries 99

5.2.2.5 Sensors 100

5.2.3 Recent research news 100

5.3 Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) 101

5.3.1 Properties 101

5.3.2 Applications 102

5.3.2.1 Electronics 102

5.3.2.2 Photovoltaics 104

5.3.2.3 Piezoelectrics 104

5.3.2.4 Sensors 104

5.3.2.5 Filtration 105

5.3.3 Recent research news 106

5.4 Hexagonal boron nitride 108

5.4.1.1 Properties 109

5.4.2 Applications 109

5.4.2.1 Electronics 109

5.4.2.2 Capacitors and fuel cells 110

5.4.3 Recent research news 110

5.5 Germanene 111

5.5.1 Properties 112

5.5.2 Applications 113

5.5.2.1 Electronics 113

5.5.3 Recent research news 114

5.6 Graphdiyne 114

5.6.1 Properties 115

5.6.2 Applications 116

5.6.2.1 Batteries 116

5.6.2.2 Separation membranes 116

5.6.2.3 Photocatalysts 117

5.6.2.4 Electronics 117

5.6.2.5 Photovoltaics 117

5.7 Graphane 117

5.7.1 Properties 118

5.7.2 Applications 118

5.7.2.1 Electronics 119

5.7.2.2 Hydrogen storage 119

5.8 Stanene/tinene 120

5.8.1 Properties 120

5.8.2 Applications 121

5.8.2.1 Electronics 121

5.8.3 Recent research news 121

5.9 Tungsten diselenide 122

5.9.1 Properties 123

5.9.2 Applications 124

5.9.2.1 Electronics 124

5.9.3 Recent research news 124

5.10 Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2 125

5.10.1 Properties 126

5.10.2 Applications 127

5.10.2.1 Electronics 127

5.11 C2N 127

5.11.1 Properties 128

5.11.2 Applications 129

5.11.2.1 Electronics 129

5.11.2.2 Filtration 130

5.11.2.3 Photocatalysts 130

6 CARBON NANOTUBE SYNTHESIS

6.1 Arc discharge synthesis 133

6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 135

6.3 Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) 136

6.4 High-pressure carbon monoxide synthesis 137

6.4.1 High Pressure CO (HiPco) 137

6.4.2 CoMoCAT 138

6.5 Flame synthesis 139

6.6 Laser ablation synthesis 140

6.7 Silane solution method 141

7 CARBON NANOTUBES MARKET STRUCTURE

8 REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

8.1 Standards 145

8.2 Environmental, health and safety regulation 145

8.2.1 Europe 145

8.2.2 United States 146

8.2.3 Asia 147

8.3 Workplace exposure 148

9 CARBON NANOTUBES PATENTS

10 CARBON NANOTUBES TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL

11 CARBON NANOTUBES END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS

11.1 Production volumes 2010-2025 153

11.2 CARBON NANOTUBES PRODUCERS AND 155

11.3 Regional demand for carbon nanotubes 156

11.3.1 Japan 159

11.3.2 China 160

11.4 Main carbon nanotubes producers 162

11.4.1 SWNT production 163

11.4.1.1 OCSiAl 163

11.4.1.2 FGV Cambridge Nanosystems 163

11.4.1.3 Zeon Corporation 164

11.5 Price of carbon nanotubes-MWNTs, SWNTs and FWNTs 164

11.5.1 MWNTs 165

11.5.2 SWNTs 165

11.6 Market penetration opportunity in key applications 166

12 CARBON NANOTUBES INDUSTRY NEWS 2013-2016

12.19 AUGUST 2015-JANUARY 181

13 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE ELECTRONICS MARKET

13.1 MAIN APPLICATIONS 183

13.1.1 TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS 184

13.1.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 184

13.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 190

13.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 191

13.3.1 Single-wall carbon nanotubes 192

13.4 CHALLENGES 193

13.4.1 Fabricating SWNT devices 193

13.4.2 Competing materials 194

13.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 195

13.6 CONDUCTIVE INKS 198

13.6.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 198

13.6.1.1 Increased demand for printed electronics 198

13.6.1.2 Limitations of existing conductive inks 199

13.7 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 200

13.8 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 201

13.9 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 203

13.10 TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 205

13.10.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 205

13.10.1.1 Scaling 205

13.10.2 Limitations of current materials 206

13.11 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 207

13.11.1 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 207

13.11.1.1 Thin film transistors (TFT) 208

13.11.1.2 CMOS transistors 208

13.12 CHALLENGES 209

13.13 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 211

13.14 MEMORY DEVICES 212

13.14.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 212

13.14.1.1 Density and voltage scaling 212

13.14.1.2 Growth in the smartphone and tablet markets 213

13.14.1.3 Growth in the flexible electronics market 213

13.15 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 214

13.15.1 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 214

13.16 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 215

14 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE POLYMER COMPOSITES MARKET

14.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 222

14.1.1 Improved performance 222

14.1.2 Multi-functionality 223

14.1.3 Growth in wind energy market 223

14.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 224

14.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 225

14.3.1 Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 226

14.3.2 Wind turbines 226

14.3.3 Construction 227

14.3.4 Sporting goods 228

14.3.5 Ballistic protection 229

14.3.6 Wire and cable 229

14.3.7 Heat management 230

14.3.8 Elastomers and rubber 230

14.4 CHALLENGES 230

14.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 231

15 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE AEROSPACE MARKET

15.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 237

15.1.1 Safety 237

15.1.2 Reduced fuel consumption and costs 237

15.1.3 Increased durability 238

15.1.4 Multi-functionality 238

15.1.5 Need for new de-icing solutions 239

15.1.6 Weight reduction 239

15.1.7 Need for improved lightning protection materials 240

15.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 240

15.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 242

15.3.1 Composites 243

15.3.1.1 ESD protection 243

15.3.1.2 Conductive cables 243

15.3.1.3 Anti-friction braking systems 243

15.3.2 Coatings 244

15.3.2.1 Anti-icing 245

15.3.3 Sensors 246

15.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 246

16 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE AUTOMOTIVE MARKET

16.1 MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS 250

16.1.1 Environmental 250

16.1.2 Safety 251

16.1.3 Lightweighting 251

16.1.4 Cost 252

16.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 252

16.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 253

16.3.1 Composites 254

16.3.2 Vehicle mass reduction 255

16.3.3 Lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles 255

16.3.4 Coatings 256

16.3.4.1 Thermally conductive 257

16.3.4.2 Flame retardant 257

16.4 CHALLENGES 257

16.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 258

17 CARBON NANOTUBESIN THE BIOMEDICAL & HEALTHCARE MARKETS

17.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 261

17.1.1 Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy 261

17.1.2 Shortcomings of chemotherapies 262

17.1.3 Biocompatibility of medical implants 262

17.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 263

17.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 264

17.3.1 Cancer therapy 266

17.3.1.1 Drug delivery 266

17.3.1.2 Immunotherapy 270

17.3.1.3 Thermal ablation 270

17.3.1.4 Stem cell therapy 271

17.3.2 Medical implants 272

17.3.3 Biosensors 272

17.3.4 Medical imaging 273

17.3.5 Tissue engineering 274

17.4 CHALLENGES 275

17.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 276

18 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE COATINGS MARKET

18.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 279

18.1.1 Sustainability and regulation 279

18.1.2 Cost of corrosion 280

18.1.3 Improved hygiene 281

18.1.4 Cost of weather-related damage 282

18.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 284

18.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 286

18.3.1 Anti-static coatings 287

18.3.2 Anti-corrosion coatings 288

18.3.2.1 Oil and gas 289

18.3.2.2 Marine 289

18.3.3 Anti-microbial 290

18.3.4 Anti-icing 291

18.3.5 Heat protection 293

18.3.6 Anti-fouling 295

18.3.7 Wearand abrasion resistance 297

18.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 298

19 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE FILTRATION AND SEPARATION MARKET

19.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 300

19.1.1 Need for improved membrane technology 300

19.1.2 Water shortage and population growth 300

19.1.3 Contamination 301

19.1.4 Cost 301

19.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 302

19.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 303

19.4 CHALLENGES 306

19.4.1 Uniform pore size and distribution 307

19.4.2 Reducing pore size for improved desalination 307

19.4.3 Difficulties of CNT growth 308

19.4.4 Cost 308

19.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 309

20 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION MARKETS

20.1 BATTERIES 312

20.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 312

20.1.2 Growth in electric vehicles market 312

20.1.3 Continued growth in cellular phones market 313

20.1.4 Reduce dependence on lithium 313

20.1.5 Shortcomings of existing battery and supercapacitor technology 313

20.1.6 Reduced costs for widespread application 314

20.1.7 Power sources for flexible electronics 315

20.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 315

20.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 316

20.3.1 CNT Anodes 317

20.3.2 CNT Cathodes 318

20.4 CHALLENGES 319

20.5 SUPERCAPACITORS 320

20.5.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 320

20.5.1.1 Reducing costs 320

20.5.1.2 Demand from portable electronics 320

20.5.1.3 Inefficiencies of standard battery technology 321

20.5.1.4 Problems with activated carbon 321

20.6 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 321

20.7 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 322

20.7.1 Graphene/CNT hybrids 323

20.8 PHOTOVOLTAICS 324

20.8.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 324

20.8.1.1 Need to improve solar cell efficiency 324

20.8.1.2 Reduce costs 324

20.8.1.3 Varying environmental conditions 325

20.9 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 325

20.10 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 325

20.10.1 Organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells 327

20.11 FUEL CELLS 328

20.11.1 MARKET DRIVERS 329

20.11.1.1 Limitations of platinum 329

20.11.1.2 Cost 329

20.12 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 329

20.13 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 330

20.13.1 Electrocatalyst supports 331

20.14 OIL AND GAS 331

20.14.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 331

20.14.1.1 Cost 332

20.14.1.2 Increased demands of drilling environments 332

20.14.1.3 Environmental and regulatory 332

20.15 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 333

20.16 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 333

20.17 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 334

21 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE SENSORS MARKET

21.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 339

21.1.1 Increased power and performance with reduced cost 339

21.1.2 Enhanced sensitivity 340

21.1.3 Replacing silver electrodes 340

21.1.4 Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market 341

21.1.5 Improved thermal stability 341

21.1.6 Environmental conditions 341

21.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 341

21.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 342

21.3.1 Electrochemical and gas sensors 343

21.3.2 Pressure sensors 344

21.3.3 Biosensors 344

21.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 346

22 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE 3D PRINTING MARKET 

22.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 349

22.1.1.1 Improved materials at lower cost 349

22.2 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 350

22.3 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 350

22.4 CHALLENGES 351

22.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 352

23 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE ADHESIVES MARKET

23.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 353

23.1.1 Thermal management in electronics 353

23.1.2 Environmental sustainability 353

23.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 353

23.3 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 354

23.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 354

24 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE LUBRICANTS MARKET

24.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 355

24.1.1 Cost effective alternatives 355

24.1.2 Need for higher-performing lubricants for fuel efficiency 356

24.1.3 Environmental concerns 356

24.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 356

24.3 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 358

24.4 CHALLENGES 358

24.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 359

25 CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE TEXTILES MARKET

25.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 360

25.1.1 Growth in the wearable electronics market 360

25.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS 360

25.2.1 Wearable electronics 363

25.2.2 Superhydrophobic coatings 363

25.2.3 Conductive coatings 364

25.2.4 Flame retardant textiles 365

25.3 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 365

25.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 366-533 (180 company profiles)

26 CARBON NANOTUBES PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS


TABLES

Table 1: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials 35

Table 2: Carbon nanotubes target markets-Applications, stage of commercialization and potential addressable market size 37

Table 3: Annual production capacity of MWNT and SWNT producers 41

Table 4: SWNT producers production capacities 2014 43

Table 5: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 46

Table 6: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2025 56

Table 7: Categorization of nanomaterials 60

Table 8: Comparison between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes 67

Table 9: Properties of carbon nanotubes 74

Table 10: Comparative properties of carbon materials 79

Table 11: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes 82

Table 12: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2025 84

Table 13: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolyaer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2 89

Table 14: Recent phosphorene research news 91

Table 15: Recent silicene research news 98

Table 16: Recent Molybdenum disulfide research news 104

Table 17: Recent hexagonal boron nitride research news 108

Table 18: Recent germanane research news 112

Table 19: Recent stanene/tinene research news 120

Table 20: Recent tungsten diselenide research news 122

Table 21: SWNT synthesis methods 130

Table 22: Carbon nanotubes market structure 140

Table 23: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 152

Table 24: Annual production capacity of main carbon nanotubes producers 153

Table 25: Example carbon nanotubes prices 163

Table 26: Market penetration and volume estimates (tons) for carbon nanotubes in key applications 165

Table 27: Carbon nanotubes in the electronics and photonics market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 180

Table 28: Comparison of ITO replacements 185

Table 29: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in transparent conductive films and displays 193

Table 30: Comparative properties of conductive inks 197

Table 31: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in conductive inks 201

Table 32: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in integrated circuits 209

Table 33: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in memory devices 217

Table 34: Carbon nanotubes in the polymer composites market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 223

Table 35: Addressable market size for carbon nanotubes composites 223

Table 36: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the composites industry 229

Table 37: Carbon nanotubes in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 239

Table 38: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the aerospace industry 244

Table 39: Carbon nanotubes in the automotive market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 251

Table 40: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the automotive industry 256

Table 41: Carbon nanotubes in the biomedical and healthcare markets-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 262

Table 42: CNTs in life sciences and biomedicine 263

Table 43: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the medical and healthcare industry 274

Table 44: Carbon nanotubes in the coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 283

Table 45: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the coatings industry 296

Table 46: Carbon nanotubes in the filtration market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 300

Table 47: Comparison of CNT membranes with other membrane technologies 303

Table 48: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the filtration industry 307

Table 49: Carbon nanotubes in the energy market-Applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 309

Table 50: Properties of carbon materials in high-performance supercapacitors 321

Table 51: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the energy industry 332

Table 52: Carbon nanotubes in the sensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 337

Table 53: First generation point of care diagnostics 344

Table 54: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the sensors industry 344

Table 55: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the 3D printing industry 350

Table 56: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the adhesives industry 352

Table 57: Applications of carbon nanotubes in lubricants 355

Table 58: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the lubricants industry 357

Table 59: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials 359

Table 60: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the textiles industry 364


FIGURES


Figure 1: Molecular structures of SWNT and MWNT 37

Figure 2: Production capacities for SWNTs in kilograms, 2005-2014 47

Figure 3: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube 67

Figure 4: Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model 70

Figure 5: Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns 72

Figure 6: Fullerene schematic 74

Figure 7: Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red 75

Figure 8: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite 80

Figure 9: Phosphorene structure 90

Figure 10: Silicene structure 95

Figure 11: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate 97

Figure 12: Silicene transistor 98

Figure 13: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide 101

Figure 14: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor 103

Figure 15: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge 105

Figure 16: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride 109

Figure 17: Schematic of germanene 112

Figure 18: Graphdiyne structure 115

Figure 19: Schematic of Graphane crystal 118

Figure 20: Crystal structure for stanene 120

Figure 21: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111) 121

Figure 22: Schematic of tungsten diselenide 123

Figure 23: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide 126

Figure 24: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal 128

Figure 25: Schematic representation of methods used for carbon nanotube synthesis (a) Arc discharge (b) Chemical vapor deposition (c) Laser ablation (d) hydrocarbon flames 132

Figure 26: Arc discharge process for CNTs 134

Figure 27: Schematic of thermal-CVD method 136

Figure 28: Schematic of plasma-CVD method 137

Figure 29: CoMoCAT® process 139

Figure 30: Schematic for flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes (a) premixed flame (b) counter-flow diffusion flame (c) co-flow diffusion flame (d) inverse diffusion flame 140

Figure 31: Schematic of laser ablation synthesis 141

Figure 32: CNT patents filed 2000-2014 149

Figure 33: Patent distribution of CNT application areas to 2014 150

Figure 34: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Carbon Nanotubes 151

Figure 35: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in batteries 158

Figure 36: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in Polymer reinforcement 159

Figure 37: Nanotube inks 203

Figure 38: Figure 38: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs 209

Figure 39: Stretchable CNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics 213

Figure 40: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip 215

Figure 41: Schematic of NRAM cell 218

Figure 42: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market 285

Figure 43: Nano Lithium X Battery 319

Figure 44: Suntech/TCNT nanotube frame module 327

Figure 45: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament 351

 

Date of Publication:
Feb 2, 2016
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