Critical Materials in Global Nanotechnology Markets

Critical Materials in Global Nanotechnology Markets

BCC, Date of Publication: Jan 14, 2014, 143 Pages
US$6,650.00
GB-AVM103A

A raw material is labeled “critical” when the risks of a supply shortage and the resulting impacts on the economy are higher than those of other raw materials. Basic availability is not the only factor affecting a critical material’s overall supply risk. Other factors include political or regulatory risks in countries that are major producers of critical materials, lack of diversity in producers, and demand from competing technologies.

STUDY BACKGROUND

The United States and other advanced economies depend on the continued availability of various critical materials to ensure their economic prosperity and in some cases their national security. Strategies for ensuring the continued availability of these critical materials include stockpiling, developing new domestic supplies or substitution.

Critical materials potentially affect the nanotechnology market in at least three ways:

  • Some nanotechnology applications may become less attractive because they use materials in short supply, at risk of shortage or subject to price increases.
  • Other nanotechnologies may become more attractive because they use smaller quantities of critical materials than macroscale applications or use no critical materials at all.
  • It may be possible to nanoengineer certain noncritical materials so they become replacements for critical materials.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The overall goal of this report is to analyze the interrelationships between critical materials and nanotechnology. Specific objectives include:

  • Identifying current nanotechnology applications of critical materials, whose economics or even feasibility are negatively affected by potential shortages of those materials.
  • Identifying nanotechnology applications that can help to alleviate or avoid shortages of critical materials. 
  • Analyzing and quantifying the resulting impacts on the nanotechnology market.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The report is intended for entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers concerned with future trends in the nanotechnology market. Other readers who should find the report particularly valuable include executives of companies that are consumers of critical materials and officials of government agencies concerned with ensuring the continued supply of these materials. In the United States, these agencies include the Departments of Defense, Energy and Homeland Security, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Trade Representative. The report’s findings and conclusions should also be of interest to the broader nanotechnology community.

SCOPE OF REPORT

“Critical materials” is a relative term. The list of critical materials varies among countries and industries, depending on their specific circumstances. In selecting the materials to be covered in this report, we drew from a number of sources, including reports published by the U.S. Department of Energy, the European Union, the British Geological Survey and the German Institut für Zukunftstudien und Technologie-bewertung.

Not all of the critical materials identified in these reports have implications for the nanotechnology market. This study focuses on those critical materials that have potential nanotechnology applications or for which nanotechnology-based substitutes exist:

  • Antimony.
  • Barium.
  • Gallium.
  • Indium.
  • Magnesium.
  • Niobium
  • Platinum group metals (PGMs).
  • Rare earths (e.g., yttrium, dysprosium, erbium, terbium, thulium, scandium).
  • Rhenium.
  • Tantalum.
  • Tellurium.
  • Tungsten.

For each of these materials, the report contains an assessment of:

  • Critical material supply/demand situation, price trends and risk of disruption.
  • Applications in which nanotechnology can contribute to reducing/avoiding consumption of critical materials.
  • Technology assessment/market leaders. 
  • Impact on the market for various nanotechnologies.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The market for existing nanotechnology applications of critical materials was worth nearly $6.5 billion in 2012. This market is expected to reach nearly $6.9 billion in 2013 and nearly $9.4 billion in 2018, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.5% for the five-year period, 2013 to 2018.

This report provides:

  • A market overview of the critical materials used in global nanotechnology industries.
  • Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of CAGRs for the period 2013 and 2018.
  • Coverage of those critical materials whose shortages can be alleviated or avoided through the application of various nanotechnologies.
  • Quantification of the potential reductions in critical materials consumption and the net economic cost to achieve them.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

If you wish to purchased this report by chapters, please use the following order form.

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION      

    STUDY BACKGROUND
    STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
    INTENDED AUDIENCE
    SCOPE OF REPORT
    METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
    ANALYST CREDENTIALS
    DISCLAIMER

Chapter 2: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY     $250    

        Table Summary : CRITICAL MATERIALS WITH THE GREATEST IMPACT ON EXISTING NANOTECHNOLOGY MARKETS, THROUGH 2018
        Figure Summary : MARKET IMPACTS VS. OPPORTUNITIES CREATED BY CRITICAL MATERIALS, 2018

Chapter 3: OVERVIEW     $1116    

    DEFINITIONS
        CRITICAL MATERIALS
        NANOTECHNOLOGY
                Table 2 : MAJOR CATEGORIES OF NANOMATERIALS
    CRITICAL MATERIALS COVERED IN THIS REPORT
        ANTIMONY
            Existing Nanotechnology Applications
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        BARIUM
        GALLIUM
            Existing Nanotechnology Applications
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        INDIUM
            Existing Nanotechnology Applications
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        MAGNESIUM
            Existing Nanotechnology Applications
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        NIOBIUM
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        PLATINUM GROUP METALS
            Existing Nanotechnology Applications
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        RARE EARTHS
            Existing Nanotechnology Applications
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        RHENIUM
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        TANTALUM
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        TELLURIUM
            Potential Nanotechnology Substitutes
        TUNGSTEN
            Table 3 : CRITICAL MATERIALS, THEIR IMPACTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
    MARKET IMPACTS
        EXISTING NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS POTENTIALLY AFFECTED
        SUBSTITUTES

Chapter 4: ANTIMONY     $1046    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOSCALE ANTIMONY APPLICATIONS
        ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE CONDUCTIVE COATINGS
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITITES FOR ANTIMONY
        FIRE RETARDANTS
        BATTERY MATERIALS
        TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE COATINGS
        IR ATTENTUATING COATINGS
            Table 8 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR ANTIMONY, THROUGH 2018

Chapter 5: BARIUM     $419    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
    NANOSCALE BARIUM APPLICATIONS
        MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITORS
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR BARIUM
        CAPACITORS

Chapter 6: GALLIUM      $698    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
    NANOSCALE GALLIUM APPLICATIONS
        PHOTOVOLTAICS
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR GALLIUM
        DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS
        LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
            Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
            Carbon Nanotube LEDs
            Table 18 : POTENTIAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED GALLIUM SUBSTITUTES, THROUGH 2018

Chapter 7: INDIUM      $558    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOSCALE INDIUM APPLICATIONS
        PHOTOVOLTAICS
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITITES FOR INDIUM

Chapter 8: MAGNESIUM      $419    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
    NANOSCALE MAGNESIUM APPLICATIONS
        MAGNESIUM NANOPARTICLES
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR MAGNESIUM
        NANOCOMPOSITE FIRE RETARDANTS
        REFRACTORY CERAMIC NANOCOMPOSITES
            Table 27 : POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR NONMAGNESIUM-CONTAINING NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018

Chapter 9: NIOBIUM     $488    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOSCALE NIOBIUM APPLICATIONS
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR MAGNESIUM
        NANOSTRUCTURED STEEL
        SUPERCONDUCTING NANOMATERIALS
            Table 30 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR NIOBIUM, THROUGH 2018

Chapter 10: PLATINUM GROUP METALS      $1046    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS
        CATALYTIC CONVERTERS
        FUEL CELLS
            Table 34 : MARKET FOR PGM NANOPARTICLES IN EXISTING APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR PLATINUM GROUP METALS
        SUBSTITUTES FOR PLATINUM NANOCATALYSTS
            Vehicle Exhaust Remediation Catalysts
            Fuel Cell Catalysts
            Refinery and Petrochemical Catalysts

Chapter 11: RARE EARTHS     $907    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
    NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS OF RARE EARTHS
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR RARE EARTHS
        PERMANENT MAGNETS
        OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS
        RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES
        LIGHTING
            Table 42 : MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR RARE EARTH APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018

Chapter 12: RHENIUM      $279    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR RHENIUM
        NANORHENIUM COMPOSITE ALLOY

Chapter 13: TANTALUM      $558    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR TANTALUM
        CAPACITORS
            Carbon-Nanotube-Based Ultracapacitors
            Aerogel Capacitors
            Other Technologies
            Table 48 : PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF NANOMATERIALS USED IN CAPACITIVE ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES, THROUGH 2018

Chapter 14: TELLURIUM      $279    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES FOR TELLURIUM
        PHOTOVOLTAICS

Chapter 15: TUNGSTEN     $349    

    SUMMARY
    DESCRIPTION AND PROPERTIES
    PRODUCTION AND DEMAND
        PRODUCTION
        DEMAND
    NANOSCALE TUNGSTEN APPLICATIONS
        Tungsten Carbide Nanocomposites
    NANOTECHNOLOGY SUBSTITUTES FOR TUNGSTEN

Chapter 16: COMPANY PROFILES      $1325    

    ANTIMONY
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    BARIUM
        NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    GALLIUM
        NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    INDIUM
    MAGNESIUM
        NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    NIOBIUM
        NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    PLATINUM GROUP METALS
        NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    RARE EARTHS, APPLICATIONS AND SUBSTITUTES
        NANOSCALE APPLICATIONS
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    RHENIUM
        THE BOEING COMPANY
    TANTALUM
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    TELLURIUM
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES
    TUNGSTEN
        NANOSCALE SUBSTITUTES

 
List of Tables

    Summary Table : CRITICAL MATERIALS WITH THE GREATEST IMPACT ON EXISTING NANOTECHNOLOGY MARKETS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 1 : SUMMARY OF MATERIALS IDENTIFIED AS BEING AT RISK OF SUPPLY DISRUPTIONS
    Table 2 : MAJOR CATEGORIES OF NANOMATERIALS
    Table 3 : CRITICAL MATERIALS, THEIR IMPACTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
    Table 4 : CONSUMPTION OF CRITICAL MATERIALS IN EXISTING NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS,THROUGH 2018
    Table 5 : MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS THAT REPLACE OR REDUCE CONSUMPTION OF CRITICAL MATERIALS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 6 : NANOSCALE ANTIMONY TIN OXIDE PRODUCERS
    Table 7 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE ANTIMONY USED IN THIN FILM COATINGS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 8 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR ANTIMONY, THROUGH 2018
    Table 9 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOCOMPOSITE FIRE RETARDANT MATERIALS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 10 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOPARTICLES USED IN RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM ION BATTERIES, THROUGH 2018
    Table 11 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOSTRUCTURED REPLACEMENT FOR ANTIMONY TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE COATINGS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 12 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED ALTERNATIVES TO ATO IR-ATTENTUATING COATINGS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 13 : MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR PRODUCERS
    Table 14 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BARIUM TITANATE NANOPARTICLES IN MULTILAYER CERAMIC CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 15 : POTENTIAL MARKET FOR STRONTIUM TITANATE NANOPARTICLES AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR BARIUM TITANATE CERAMIC CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 16 : MANUFACTURERS OF CIGS THIN FILM PVS
    Table 17 : MARKET FOR GALLIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS USED IN CIGS PV FABRICATION, THROUGH 2018
    Table 18 : POTENTIAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED GALLIUM SUBSTITUTES, THROUGH 2018
    Table 19 : COMPANIES MANUFACTURING OR DEVELOPING DSSC PVS
    Table 20 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN PHOTOVOLTAICS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 21 : GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED LIGHTING MATERIALS FOR BACKLIGHITNG APPLICATIONS
    Table 22 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF INDIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS USED IN CIGS PV FABRICATION, THROUGH 2018
    Table 23 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR INDIUM, THROUGH 2018
    Table 24 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR INDIUM USED IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 25 : PROJECTED SUBSTITUTION OF GALLIUM NANOPARTICLES/PRECURSORS FOR INDIUM USED IN CIGS PVS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 26 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES, THROUGH 2018
    Table 27 : POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR NONMAGNESIUM-CONTAINING NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018
    Table 28 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NONMAGNESIUM-CONTAINING FIRE RETARDANT NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018
    Table 29 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF REFRACTORY NANOCOMPOSITES, THROUGH 2018
    Table 30 : GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR NIOBIUM, THROUGH 2018
    Table 31 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED STEEL, THROUGH 2018
    Table 32 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSTRUCTURED SUPERCONDUCTORS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 33 : GLOBAL MINE PRODUCTION OF PGMS, 2012
    Table 34 : MARKET FOR PGM NANOPARTICLES IN EXISTING APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 35 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE THIN FILM MATERIALS IN CATALYTIC CONVERTERS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 36 : GLOBAL SALES OF FUEL CELLS THAT USE PLATINUM NANOCATALYSTS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 37 : FUEL CELL CONSUMPTION OF PLATINUM THIN FILM CATALYSTS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 38 : RARE EARTH ELEMENTS
    Table 39 : RARE EARTH ELEMENT APPLICATIONS
    Table 40 : RARE EARTH ELEMENTS CONSIDERED CRITICAL
    Table 41 : RARE-EARTH-DOPED METAL OXIDE NANOPHOSPHOR MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2018
    Table 42 : MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED SUBSTITUTES FOR RARE EARTH APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 43 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF MAGNETIC NANOCOMPOSITES FOR ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 44 : COMPANIES INVOLVED IN QUANTUM DOT OPTICAL AMPLIFIER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    Table 45 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF QUANTUM DOTS USED IN OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 46 : GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF OLED LIGHTING MATERIALS FOR ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 47 : PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF NANOSCALE RHENIUM IN JET AND ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 48 : PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF NANOMATERIALS USED IN CAPACITIVE ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES, THROUGH 2018
    Table 49 : PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON NANOTUBES USED IN ULTRACAPACITORS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 50 : PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF CARBON AEROGELS USED IN SUPERCAPACITORS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 51 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOCOMPOSITES IN TUNGSTEN CARBIDE TOOLS, THROUGH 2018
    Table 52 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NANOADDITIVES USED IN TUNGSTEN CARBIDE SUBSTITUTES, THROUGH 2018


List of Figures

    Summary Figure : MARKET IMPACTS VS. OPPORTUNITIES CREATED BY CRITICAL MATERIALS, 2018
    Figure 1 : ANTIMONY: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 2 : WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF ANTIMONY, 2011
    Figure 3 : BARIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 4 : WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF BARITES, 2012
    Figure 5 : GALLIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 6 : INDIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
    Figure 7 : WORLD REFINERY PRODUCTION OF INDIUM, 2012
    Figure 8 : MAGNESIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 9 : GLOBAL MAGNESIUM PRODUCTION, 2012
    Figure 10 : NIOBIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 11 : WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF NIOBIUM, 2012
    Figure 12 : GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF NIOBIUM
    Figure 13 : PLATINUM GROUP METALS: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 14 : GLOBAL PGM SUPPLY, 2012
    Figure 15 : WORLD MINE PRODUCTION OF PLATINUM GROUP METALS, 2008-2012
    Figure 16 : GROSS DEMAND FOR PGMS BY SECTOR, 2012
    Figure 17 : GLOBAL LIGHT-VEHICLE ASSEMBLIES, 2007-2018
    Figure 18 : RARE EARTHS: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 19 : TRENDS IN CHINESE EXPORT QUOTAS FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, 2006-2012
    Figure 20 : INDIVIDUAL REE SHARES OF TOTAL GLOBAL REE PRODUCTION
    Figure 21 : RARE EARTH ELEMENT USAGE BY APPLICATION
    Figure 22 : RHENIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 23 : GLOBAL RHENIUM CONSUMPTION BY APPLICATION, 2012
    Figure 24 : TANTALUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 25 : TANTALUM PRODUCTION BY SOURCE, 2011
    Figure 26 : PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF TANTALUM BY COUNTRY/REGION, 2010
    Figure 27 : WORLDWIDE CONSUMPTION OF TANTALUM, 2000-2011
    Figure 28 : TELLURIUM: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 29 : WORLD REFINERY PRODUCTION OF TELLURIUM BY COUNTRY, 2012
    Figure 30 : TELLURIUM APPLICATIONS, 2012
    Figure 31 : TUNGSTEN CARBIDE: RISKS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY, 2012-2018
    Figure 32 : GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF TUNGSTEN CONCENTRATE

 

 

Date of Publication:
Jan 14, 2014
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
143 Pages
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