Energy Independent Vehicles

Energy Independent Vehicles 2016-2026

IDTechEX, Date of Publication: Oct 15, 2016, 170 Pages
US$5,475.00
IDT4870

Energy-autonomous, self-sufficient, electric land vehicles, boats, ships and aircraft propelled entirely by on-board conversion of wind, sun, waves, other ambient energy

You can already buy a tourist bus or boat or golf car that never plugs in or refuels because it captures enough sunshine. Buy an autonomous underwater vehicle that surfaces to recharge its batteries with sunshine and sometimes wave power. See ships and planes circumnavigating the world electrically on sunshine alone. Buy an electric plane with a propeller that goes backwards when it rides thermals to charge the battery. Buy a boat that has a thrust propeller that does the same when under sail or moored in a tidestream.

Electric energy independent vehicles (EIVs) are going to be of immense importance even in remote communities and the developing world as they become much more capable. Energy independent airships, fixed wing planes and underwater vessels are being designed for surveillance and inspection.

A multi-billion dollar industry is awaiting those involved in boats, ships, aircraft, land vehicles and energy harvesting. The electric vehicle business is forecasted to be around $500 billion in 2026, rising strongly thereafter.

In this report the electric vehicle market addressable by energy independence technology is forecasted in 45 categories. And EIVs, often the end game, will be an increasingly significant part of it. Energy independent vehicle projects by land, on-water, underwater and in the air are analysed after a thorough grounding in the technologies. How those technologies will progress is given particular attention - from multi-mode harvesting to structural electronics where the structure doubles as supercapacitor, battery and so on. Achievements and potential are presented in easily understood form. The basis is almost entirely research in 2015 from intensive global travel, interviews and analysis by PhD level experts. Latest conference material and presentations from across the world are shown.

Speed range of EIVs in this report. Actual operating vehicles in green, planned in red

Electric energy independent vehicles EIVs market report

Land and water vehicles are pushing for higher speeds but the aircraft have got there and are now seeking other things, sometimes at slower speed. The other things include carrying more people and cargo and going further. The arrows show the trend in speed of next generation vs today's EIVs.

This report purchase includes up to 30 minutes telephone time with an expert analyst who will help you link key findings in the report to the business issues you're addressing. This needs to be used within three months of purchasing the report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

1.1. Definition and characteristics
1.1.1. Definition
1.1.2. Characteristics
1.2. Market overview
1.2.1. Largest value market by power
1.3. Maturity of market by application
1.4. Hype curve for energy harvesting applications
1.5. EH systems
1.6. Market forecast 2016-2026
1.6.1. The big picture
1.6.2. Forecasts by technology
1.6.3. Overall market for transducers
1.6.4. Market for power conditioning
1.7. Technology timeline 2016-2025
1.8. Detailed technology sector forecasts 2015-2025
1.8.1. Electrodynamic
1.8.2. Photovoltaic
1.8.3. Thermoelectrics
1.8.4. Territorial differences
1.9. End game with EVs: high power energy harvesting
1.9.1. Place in history
1.9.2. Types
1.9.3. Multi-mode harvesting already
1.10. Types of EIV
1.11. Chasing speed or other capability
1.12. Technologies
1.13. Multi-mode energy harvesting
1.13.2. Importance at high power
1.13.3. Importance at low power
1.13.4. Common on land: rave in EIVs
1.14. Market potential

2. INTRODUCTION

2.1. Energy harvesting comes center stage
2.1.1. Why electric vehicles?
2.1.2. EV powertrain evolution
2.2. Energy Harvesting Microwatts to Megawatts Off-Grid
2.3. High power energy harvesting in the big picture
2.4. Progression to energy independent vehicles
2.4.1. SolarWorld e-One Germany
2.4.2. Solar Flight Sunseeker Duo USA
2.5. Fully energy independent vehicles

3. HIGH POWER ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNOLOGY, MARKET AND FUTURE

3.1. HPEH Technology
3.2. Technologies compared
3.2.1. Parametric
3.2.2. System design: transducer, power conditioning, energy storage
3.3. Mature technologies
3.3.1. Wind turbines, rotary blade
3.3.2. Conventional photovoltaics
3.3.3. Regenerative braking
3.4. Photovoltaics in future
3.5. Triboelectric vehicle tires
3.6. Off-grid wave harvesting
3.6.1. Introduction
3.6.2. CorPower Ocean Sweden
3.6.3. Levant Power USA
3.6.4. National Agency for New Energy Technologies (ENEA) Italy
3.7. HPEH in context: IRENA Roadmap to 27% Renewable
3.8. Electric vehicle end game: free non-stop road travel
3.8.1. Flexible, conformal, transparent, UV, IR
3.8.2. Technological options
3.8.3. Principles of operation
3.8.4. Options for flexible PV
3.8.5. Many types of photovoltaics needed for harvesting
3.8.6. Spray on power for electric vehicles and more
3.8.7. Powerweave harvesting and storage e-fiber/ e-textile for boats and airships
3.8.8. University of Bolton combined piezo and photo fiber

4. ENERGY INDEPENDENT VEHICLES ON LAND

4.1. Case Western Reserve University USA cars
4.2. Dalian sightseeing car China
4.3. IFEVS microcar Italy
4.4. Immortus car Australia
4.5. NFH-H microbus China
4.6. Solar racing cars worldwide
4.7. Venturi Eclectic car France
4.8. VineRobot Europe

5. ENERGY INDEPENDENT BOATS AND SHIPS

5.1. Loon pontoon boat Canada
5.2. MARS Shuttleworth motor yacht, UK
5.3. Milper REP-SAIL motor yacht, Turkey
5.4. Rensea MARINA motor yacht Europe
5.5. Seaswarm oil slick gathering robot, USA
5.6. SoelCat motor boat Netherlands
5.7. SolarLab tourist boats Germany
5.8. Sun 21 Solar Boat
5.9. Turanor Planet Solar Germany
5.10. Vaka Moana motor yacht Netherlands
5.11. Wave and sun powered sea gliders
5.11.1. Falmouth Scientific Inc. USA
5.11.2. Liquid Robotics USA
5.11.3. US Naval Undersea Warfare Center

6. ENERGY INDEPENDENT AIRCRAFT

6.1. Dirisolar airship France
6.2. ETHZ UAV Switzerland
6.3. ISIS airship USA
6.4. Lockheed Martin airship USA
6.5. NASA Helios USA
6.6. Northrop Grumman airship USA
6.7. Projet Sol'r Nepheleos France
6.8. Solar Flight USA
6.9. Solar Impulse Switzerland
6.10. Solar Ship inflatable aircraft Canada
6.11. Sunrise Solar airship Turkey
6.12. Turtle Airships Spain

7. INTERVIEWS AND PRESENTATIONS 2015: EXAMPLES

7.1. Marine - various
7.2. Energy storage Japan
7.3. Spray on solar Netherlands
7.4. CargoTrike UK

TABLES

1.1. Examples of uses of HPEH expressed as duration of harvesting available with examples of companies using or developing these applications
1.2. Comparison of desirable features of the EH technologies. Good in red. Others are poor or not yet clarified.
1.3. Typical transducer power range of the main technical options for HPEH transducer arrays - electrodynamic, photovoltaic and thermoelectric - and some less important ones shown in grey
1.4. Potential for improving energy harvesting efficiency
1.5. Typical power needs increasingly addressed by high power energy harvesting
1.6. Power end game 2026 showing vehicle propulsion in context with winners shown in green. Areas with some activity but not dominant are shown clear
1.7. Power density provided by different forms of HPEH with exceptionally useful superlatives in yellow. Other parameters are optimal at different levels depending on system design.
1.8. Good features and challenges of the four most important EH technologies in order of importance
1.9. Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (units million) 2015-2026 rounded
1.10. Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (unit price dollars) 2015-2026
1.11. Global value market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (market value billion dollars) 2015-2026 rounded
1.12. Main contributors to EH transducer sales 2015-2026. The technologies supplied by many large companies taking substantial orders are highlighted in orange.
1.13. Timeline 2016-2025 with those advances most greatly impacting energy harvesting market size shown in yellow.
1.14. Electrodynamics for Energy Harvesting units millions 2015-2025, dominant numbers in 2025 in yellow.
1.15. Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2015-2025 number thousand
1.16. Electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2015-2025 notional unit value dollars given that these motors and generators double as other functions
1.17. Notional total market value for electrodynamic EH for regenerative braking in electric vehicles 2015-2025 $ billion rounded
1.18. Electrodynamic harvesting alternators in conventional internal combustion engined vehicles, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2015-2025
1.19. Electrodynamic harvesting Other, mainly energy harvesting shock absorbers, number, notional unit value $ and value market $ billion 2015-2025
1.20. Photovoltaics for Energy Harvesting MW peak million 2015-2025
1.21. Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units thousand 2015-2025
1.22. Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting units value dollars 2015-2025
1.23. Thermoelectrics for Energy Harvesting total value thousands of dollars 2015-2025
1.24. Some highlights of global effort on energy harvesting
1.25. Energy independent vehicle types
1.26. Proliferation of electrodynamic harvesting options
1.27. Numbers of electric vehicles, in thousands, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector
1.28. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded
1.29. Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded
3.1. Maturity of off-grid HPEH technologies in adoption and development not age. Electricity used where made.
3.2. Power density provided by different forms of high power energy harvesting. Best volumetric and gravimetric energy density.
3.3. Some classical applications with the type of transducer and energy storage typically chosen
3.4. Comparison of pn junction and photoelectrochemical photovoltaics
3.5. The main options for photovoltaics beyond conventional silicon compared

FIGURES

1.1. Examples of photovoltaics providing total power requirements of a vehicle, including motive power
1.2. Examples of applications being developed 10W-1MW
1.3. Technology focus of 200 organisations developing the different leading energy harvesting technologies
1.4. Maturity of different forms of energy harvesting
1.5. Hype curve snapshot for high power energy harvesting applications in 2015-6
1.6. Hype curve snapshot for high power energy harvesting applications in 2026
1.7. Hype curve for HPEH technology 2016
1.8. Hype curve for HPEH technology 2026
1.9. Institutions involved in airborne wind energy in 2015
1.10. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in land vehicles
1.11. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in marine vehicles
1.12. Proliferation of actual and potential energy harvesting in airborne vehicles
1.13. EH system diagram
1.14. HPEH including battery systems related to other off-grid and to on-grid harvesting market values in 2016
1.15. Global installed renewable energy GW cumulative, off-grid and on-grid by source
1.16. Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (units million) 2015-2026 rounded
1.17. Global market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (unit price dollars) 2015-2026
1.18. Global value market for energy harvesting transducers at all power levels (market value billion dollars) 2015-2026 rounded
1.19. Energy harvesting organisations by continent
1.20. Organisations active in energy harvesting by country, numbers rounded
1.21. Progression from conventional vehicles to self-powered electric vehicles.
1.22. Speed range of EIVs in this report. Actual operating vehicles in green, planned in red.
1.23. Multiple energy harvesting
1.24. HPP structure
1.25. Envisaged marine application of HPP combining sail and electrical EIV technology
1.26. Numbers of electric vehicles, in thousands, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector
1.27. Ex-factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded
1.28. Ex-factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2016-2026, by applicational sector, rounded
2.1. Choices of range extender for hybrid electric vehicles compared with energy storage options and energy harvesting
2.2. Sunseeker Duo
2.3. Turanor and Solar Impulse
3.1. The performance of the favourite energy harvesting technologies. Technologies with no moving parts are shown in red. Thermoelectric not so good when it needs fins or water cooling.
3.2. Typical energy harvesting system
3.3. Simplest scheme for vehicle regenerative braking
3.4. Nissan Lithium-ion forklift with regenerative braking
3.5. Mazda supercapacitor-based energy harvesting from reversing alternator during coasting and braking in a conventional car
3.6. Regen braking research
3.7. Energy harvesting from Levant Power
3.8. Pendulum Wave Energy Converter (PEWEC)
3.9. Annual share of annual variable renewable power generation on-grid and off-grid 2014 and 2030 if all Remap options are implemented
3.10. Kopf Solarshiff pure electric solar powered lake boats in Germany and the UK for up to 150 people
3.11. NREL adjudication of efficiencies under standard conditions
3.12. Powerweave
3.13. HPP structure
3.14. HPP envisaged application in buildings
3.15. Envisaged marine application of HPP
4.1. Dalian golf car
4.2. IFEVS energy autonomous microcars
4.3. Immortus solar sports car concept
4.4. Immortus ghost diagram
4.5. NFH-H golf car
4.6. Examples of solar racing cars
4.7. Venturi Eclectic
4.8. VineRobot work program
5.1. Loon
5.2. MARS
5.3. Milper and the REP-SAIL project.
5.4. Rensea MARINA
5.5. Seaswarm
5.6. SoelCat
5.7. Alster Sun Hamburg Solar Shuttle
5.8. Constance Solar Shuttle
5.9. Turanor fact sheet
5.10. Turanor construction process
5.11. Vaka Moana
5.12. Falmouth Scientific solar sea glider AUV
5.13. Wave and sun powered sea glider
5.14. Autonomous wave glider
5.15. PACX Wave Glider
5.16. Large autonomous robot jellyfish
6.1. Dirisolar
6.2. AtlantikSolar2
6.3. ISIS concept
6.4. Lockheed HALE-D
6.5. Helios
6.6. Solar surveillance airship ordered by the US military
6.7. Nepheleos
6.8. Sunstar
6.9. Solar Impulse compared to jumbo jet
6.10. Ghost pictures of Solar Impulse 2
6.11. Round the world route
6.12. Flight to Hawaii
6.13. Solar Ship
6.14. Operating principle
6.15. Turtle airship concept
7.1. Energy harvesting considered and rejected for autonomous short sea ship except possibly wave
7.2. CargoTrike with 300W EIV with solar panel on top

 

Date of Publication:
Oct 15, 2016
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
170 Pages
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