Energy and Resources Research Review

Energy and Resources Research Review 2015

BCC, Date of Publication: Jan 14, 2016, 133 Pages
US$950.00
GB-EGY095D

2015 Energy and Resources Research Review
REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

  • The global photovoltaic (PV) modules market was valued at $32.6 billion in 2013 and $34.6 billion in 2014. This market is expected to decrease to $27 billion by 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of -4.8% from 2014 to 2019.
  • The yearly and cumulative investment spending by separation technology was$ 6.8 billion in 2014. It is estimated that the spending will be $6.8 billion in 2015 and $1 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of -32%.
  • In terms of revenue, the global renewable energy market (excluding biofuels) reached $432.7 billion in 2013 and $476.3 billion in 2014. This market is expected to increase to $777.6 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.3% from 2014 to 2019.

Energy and Resources Research Review provides market professionals with concise market coverage within a specific research category. This report include portions of several market research reports that were published in 2015, and are an efficient way for market professionals to keep up with the general market developments of 2015.

Please note that page references in the text are to pages in the original, complete report, and do not reflect the actual page numbers in this Research Review.

This 2015 Energy and Resources Research Review includes excerpts from the following reports:

  • Global Markets and Technologies for Photovoltaic Systems
  • Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage Technologies
  • Renewable Energy: Technologies and Global Markets
  • Utility-scale Electricity Storage Technologies: Global Markets
  • Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Technologies and Global Markets

We encourage you to obtain and benefit from the full market research reports that are excerpted in this Research Review.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

GLOBAL MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

  • INTRODUCTION
    • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
    • REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY
    • INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • SCOPE OF REPORT
    • METHODOLOGY
    • INFORMATION SOURCES
    • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
    • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • SUMMARY
    • TABLE 1 GLOBAL PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ BILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 1 GLOBAL PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES MARKET BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ BILLIONS)
  • OVERVIEW
    • CURRENT ENVIRONMENT
      • TABLE 2 THE GLOBAL ENERGY PROBLEM
    • DEMAND FOR ENERGY CONTINUES TO GROW
    • CLIMATE CHANGE NEEDS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY
    • INADEQUATE FUEL RESERVES CALL FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY
    • NEED FOR SOLAR POWER
      • TABLE 3 ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY
    • PV TECHNOLOGIES
      • TABLE 4 OVERVIEW OF PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES
    • PV APPLICATIONS
      • TABLE 5 KEY APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOVOLTAICS
    • MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY
      • TABLE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES SHIPMENT BY TECHNOLOGY GENERATION, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
    • MARKET BY REGION
      • TABLE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES SHIPMENT BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
      • FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES SHIPMENT BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019 (%)
    • CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS
      • TABLE 8 CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES BY REGION, 2010--2019 (GW/%)
      • FIGURE 3 CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES BY REGION, 2010-2019 (%)

CARBON CAPTURE, UTILIZATION AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

  • INTRODUCTION
    • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
    • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
    • SCOPE OF REPORT
    • METHODOLOGY
    • INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • INFORMATION SOURCES
    • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
    • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • SUMMARY
    • TABLE 9 YEARLY AND CUMULATIVE INVESTMENT SPENDING BY SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ BILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 4 YEARLY AND CUMULATIVE INVESTMENT SPENDING BY SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2019 ($ BILLIONS)
  • OVERVIEW
    • CLIMATE POLICIES AND REGULATION
      • TABLE 10 CO2 EMISSIONS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (BILLION TONS)
      • TABLE 11 GHG REDUCTION TARGETS 2020 BY COUNTRY/ REGION
  • KYOTO AGREEMENT
    • CARBON PRICING
      • TABLE 12 CARBON PRICE BY COUNTRY ($ PER TON OF CO2)
  • CO2 USE VERSUS CO2 STORAGE
    • CO2 MERCHANT MARKET
      • TABLE 13 MERCHANT CO2 DEMAND (INCLUDING EOR) BY END USE (%)
    • EMERGING USES AND CO2 UTILIZATION
    • CO2 STORAGE
    • TECHNOLOGIES EXAMINED
    • POST-COMBUSTION CAPTURE SYSTEMS
    • PRE-COMBUSTION CAPTURE SYSTEMS
    • OXY-FUEL COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
    • INHERENT SEPARATION
    • CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES
      • TABLE 14 OVERVIEW CAPTURE OPTIONS BY SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY
      • Absorption
        • FIGURE 5 DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF SOLVENT ABSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CO2 CAPTURE
      • Adsorption
        • FIGURE 6 DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF GAS ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CO
    • CAPTURE
      • Membranes
        • FIGURE 7 DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CO
    • CAPTURE
      • Chemical Looping
      • Cryogenic Separation
    • CO2 CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES
      • Photochemical Reduction
      • Electrochemical Reduction (ERC)
      • CO2 Hydrogenation
      • Biological Conversion
  • CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
    • TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES NEEDED
    • POLICY INCENTIVES AND SUPPORT
      • Strong, Sustainable Emissions Reduction Policies
      • CCS Regulation Uncertainties to be Addressed
      • R&D Programs
      • Efforts toward Increase of Public Understanding and Acceptance of CCS technology
      • Transport and Storage Infrastructure
    • BECCS
    • PRODUCT AND REVENUE DIVERSIFICATION
    • IMPORTANCE OF CCS IN INDUSTRIAL SECTORS

RENEWABLE ENERGY: TECHNOLOGIES AND GLOBAL MARKETS

  • INTRODUCTION
    • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
    • REASONS FOR THE STUDY
    • SCOPE OF THE REPORT
    • INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES
    • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
    • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • SUMMARY
    • TABLE 15 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
    • FIGURE 8 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2019 (GW)
    • TABLE 16 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 9 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET ANALYSIS
    • TABLE 17 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS)
    • TABLE 18 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
    • TABLE 19 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET DETERMINANTS
    • GROWTH OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION LEVELS
      • FIGURE 10 GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION LEVELS, 2006-2012 (BILLION METRIC TONS)
    • FAVORABLE REGULATIONS
      • Green-e Marketplace
      • LEED Certification Program
      • EPA Green Power Partnership
      • EPA Climate Leaders
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET SEGMENTATION
      • FIGURE 11 RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET SEGMENTS
  • HISTORY OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY INSTALLED CAPACITY
      • TABLE 20 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY BY RESOURCE, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
      • FIGURE 12 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY SHARE BY RESOURCE, 2013 AND 2019 (%)
  • GROWTH IN ELECTRICITY DEMAND
  • GLOBAL ROADMAPS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION
    • LEGISLATION FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
    • INCENTIVE MECHANISMS

UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES: GLOBAL MARKETS

  • INTRODUCTION
    • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
    • REASONS FOR COMPLETING THIS STUDY
    • INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY AND FOR WHOM
    • SCOPE OF REPORT AND METHODOLOGY
    • GLOBAL MARKET
      • TABLE 21 LIST OF GLOBAL MARKETS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
    • METHODOLOGY
      • TABLE 22 RESEARCH INFORMATION SOURCES
    • INFORMATION SOURCES
    • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
    • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
    • SUMMARY
      • TABLE 23 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CAPITAL EXPENDITURE (CAPEX) BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
      • FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CAPEX BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
    • OVERVIEW
      • TABLE 24 UES TECHNOLOGIES (MW)
    • UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
    • BRIEF HISTORY
    • OVERALL CHALLENGES FOR THE EES INDUSTRY
    • CHALLENGES FOR IMPLEMENTING LARGE-SCALE EES
    • COSTS AND ECONOMIC VIABILITY
      • PUMPED HYDROLOGIC STORAGE
      • COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE
      • BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE
        • TABLE 25 MAIN MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS (MW, MWH, $/KWH)
  • BENEFITS OF UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
    • GRID BENEFITS
      • Load Leveling
        • FIGURE 14 STYLIZED REPRESENTATION OF A DAILY LOAD CURVE
      • Capacity Factor/Dispatch for Intermittent Renewables
      • Peaking Power Support
    • OFFSET OF NEEDED PEAKING POWER GENERATION CAPACITY
    • OFFSET OF NEEDED RENEWABLE GENERATION CAPACITY
    • ECONOMIC BENEFITS
      • Energy Arbitrage
      • Investment Deferral
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY DISPATCH AND TIMING BENEFITS
      • FIGURE 15 EXAMPLE OF OFFSET RENEWABLE GENERATION: WIND GENERATION, CALIFORNIA (MW)
  • DRAWBACKS OF UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
    • PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS AND LAND REQUIREMENTS
    • WATER USE
    • ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
    • ENERGY LOSS DURING STORAGE
    • ECONOMIC RISK
  • DESCRIPTION OF UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEM COMPONENTS
    • PUMPED HYDROLOGIC STORAGE
      • FIGURE 16 SALINA (OKLAHOMA) PUMPED STORAGE PROJECT
      • FIGURE 17 PHS SYSTEM UTILIZES SEAWATER, OKINAWA, JAPAN
      • FIGURE 18 EXCAVATED PHS CONCEPT
      • Pumps and Turbines
        • FIGURE 19 CROSS-SECTION OF A REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE
        • FIGURE 20 REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE DURING ASSEMBLY
        • FIGURE 21 GENERATOR FOR A REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE
    • GRAVITY POWER MODULE PUMPED HYDRO STORAGE
      • FIGURE 22 CROSS-SECTION OF GRAVITY POWER MODULE (GPM) SYSTEM
    • COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE
      • FIGURE 23 HUNTORF CAES
      • FIGURE 24 MCINTOSH CAES
      • FIGURE 25 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF A CAES SYSTEM
      • Air Compressors
        • FIGURE 26 AXIAL AIR COMPRESSOR (LEFT) AND RADIAL AIR COMPRESSOR (RIGHT)
      • Intercoolers and Aftercoolers
      • Recuperators
      • Expanders
        • FIGURE 27 AIR EXPANDER
      • Gas Turbine
        • FIGURE 28 STANDARD GAS TURBINE WITH COMPRESSOR SECTION
      • Generators
        • FIGURE 29 MCINTOSH GAS TURBINE (BOTTOM), GENERATOR (TOP) AND EXHAUST (RIGHT)
    • UTILITY APPLICATIONS
      • TABLE 26 UTILITY APPLICATIONS OF PHS, CAES AND BES
    • EMERGING UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES
      • FIGURE 30 COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES, BES AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
    • OVERVIEW OF SMALL-SCALE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
      • FIGURE 31 MATURITY STAGE OF ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
      • CAES Heat Storage and Advanced Adiabatic CAES
      • Flow Batteries
        • FIGURE 32 FLOW BATTERY SYSTEM
      • Lead-Acid Batteries
      • Lithium-Ion Batteries
      • Sodium-Sulfur Battery Systems
      • Vanadium Redox Battery Systems
      • Zinc-Bromine Battery Systems
      • Ultracapacitors
      • Flywheels
    • REVIEW OF RELEVANT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND POTENTIAL FOR MARKET READINESS
      • FIGURE 33 COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS (BIPV): TECHNOLOGIES AND GLOBAL MARKETS

  • INTRODUCTION
    • STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
    • REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY
    • SCOPE OF REPORT
    • METHODOLOGY
    • INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • INFORMATION SOURCES
    • ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS
    • RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS
  • SUMMARY
  • EMERGENCE OF BIPV AND NEW GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
    • TABLE 27 GLOBAL BIPV REVENUE TO PHOTOVOLTAIC MANUFACTURERS BY BIPV APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
    • FIGURE 34 GLOBAL BIPV REVENUE TO PHOTOVOLTAIC MANUFACTURERS BY BIPV APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
  • EVOLVING BIPV MARKETPLACES
    • ENTER PEROVSKITE
    • GO WHERE THEY ARE AND WHERE THEY CANNOT GO
    • SHIFT THE LOAD
  • STRATEGIES FOR BIPV SUCCESS
  • OVERVIEW


LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1: GLOBAL PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 2: THE GLOBAL ENERGY PROBLEM
TABLE 3: ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY
TABLE 4: OVERVIEW OF PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES
TABLE 5: KEY APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOVOLTAICS
TABLE 6: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES SHIPMENT BY TECHNOLOGY GENERATION, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
TABLE 7: GLOBAL MARKET FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES SHIPMENT BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
TABLE 8: CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES BY REGION, 2010--2019 (GW/%)
TABLE 9: YEARLY AND CUMULATIVE INVESTMENT SPENDING BY SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ BILLIONS)
TABLE 10: CO2 EMISSIONS BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (BILLION TONS)
TABLE 11: GHG REDUCTION TARGETS 2020 BY COUNTRY/ REGION
TABLE 12: CARBON PRICE BY COUNTRY ($ PER TON OF CO2)
TABLE 13: MERCHANT CO2 DEMAND (INCLUDING EOR) BY END USE (%)
TABLE 14: OVERVIEW CAPTURE OPTIONS BY SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 15: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
TABLE 16: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 17: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY AND REVENUE, THROUGH 2019 (GW/$ MILLIONS)
TABLE 18: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
TABLE 19: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET REVENUE BY REGION, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 20: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY BY RESOURCE, THROUGH 2019 (GW)
TABLE 21: LIST OF GLOBAL MARKETS CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY
TABLE 22: RESEARCH INFORMATION SOURCES
TABLE 23: GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CAPITAL EXPENDITURE (CAPEX) BY TECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2020 ($ MILLIONS)
TABLE 24: UES TECHNOLOGIES (MW)
TABLE 25: MAIN MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS (MW, MWH, $/KWH)
TABLE 26: UTILITY APPLICATIONS OF PHS, CAES AND BES
TABLE 27: GLOBAL BIPV REVENUE TO PHOTOVOLTAIC MANUFACTURERS BY BIPV APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2019 ($ MILLIONS)

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1: GLOBAL PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES MARKET BY REGION, 2013-2019 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 2: GLOBAL MARKET SHARE FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES SHIPMENT BY REGION, 2014 AND 2019 (%)
FIGURE 3: CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES BY REGION, 2010-2019 (%)
FIGURE 4: YEARLY AND CUMULATIVE INVESTMENT SPENDING BY SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2019 ($ BILLIONS)
FIGURE 5: DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF SOLVENT ABSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CO2 CAPTURE
FIGURE 6: DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF GAS ADSORPTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CO2 CAPTURE
FIGURE 7: DEVELOPMENT STATUS OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CO2 CAPTURE
FIGURE 8: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) INSTALLED CAPACITY BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2019 (GW)
FIGURE 9: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY (EXCLUDING BIOFUELS) MARKET REVENUE BY TECHNOLOGY, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 10: GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION LEVELS, 2006-2012 (BILLION METRIC TONS)
FIGURE 11: RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET SEGMENTS
FIGURE 12: GLOBAL RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY INSTALLED CAPACITY SHARE BY RESOURCE, 2013 AND 2019 (%)
FIGURE 13: GLOBAL MARKET FOR UTILITY-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CAPEX BY TECHNOLOGY, 2014-2020 ($ MILLIONS)
FIGURE 14: STYLIZED REPRESENTATION OF A DAILY LOAD CURVE
FIGURE 15: EXAMPLE OF OFFSET RENEWABLE GENERATION: WIND GENERATION, CALIFORNIA (MW)
FIGURE 16: SALINA (OKLAHOMA) PUMPED STORAGE PROJECT
FIGURE 17: PHS SYSTEM UTILIZES SEAWATER, OKINAWA, JAPAN
FIGURE 18: EXCAVATED PHS CONCEPT
FIGURE 19: CROSS-SECTION OF A REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE
FIGURE 20: REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE DURING ASSEMBLY
FIGURE 21: GENERATOR FOR A REVERSIBLE PUMP TURBINE
FIGURE 22: CROSS-SECTION OF GRAVITY POWER MODULE (GPM) SYSTEM
FIGURE 23: HUNTORF CAES
FIGURE 24: MCINTOSH CAES
FIGURE 25: SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF A CAES SYSTEM
FIGURE 26: AXIAL AIR COMPRESSOR (LEFT) AND RADIAL AIR COMPRESSOR (RIGHT)
FIGURE 27: AIR EXPANDER
FIGURE 28: STANDARD GAS TURBINE WITH COMPRESSOR SECTION
FIGURE 29: MCINTOSH GAS TURBINE (BOTTOM), GENERATOR (TOP) AND EXHAUST (RIGHT)
FIGURE 30: COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES, BES AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
FIGURE 31: MATURITY STAGE OF ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
FIGURE 32: FLOW BATTERY SYSTEM
FIGURE 33: COMPARISON OF PHS, CAES AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
FIGURE 34: GLOBAL BIPV REVENUE TO PHOTOVOLTAIC MANUFACTURERS BY BIPV APPLICATION SEGMENT, 2013-2019 ($ MILLIONS)

 

Date of Publication:
Jan 14, 2016
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133 Pages
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