Global Market for Graphene

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027

Future Markets, Date of Publication: Oct 4, 2018, 815 Pages
US$1,150.00
FM3477

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027 is a comprehensive analysis of the market and commercial opportunities for these remarkable materials.

Graphene is a ground-breaking 2D material that possesses extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties that promise a new generation of innovative devices. Beyond graphene, emerging elementary 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, group V systems including phosphorene, and related isoelectronic structures will potentially allow for flexible electronics and field-effect transistors that exhibit ambipolar transport behavior with either a direct band-gap or greater gate modulation.

We have greatly expanded the sections covering flexible electronics, wearables and energy and details on industry demand in tons (current and projected) has been added for key markets.

A number of graphene-enhanced products entered the market in 2017 in consumer electronic equipment, composites, energy storage etc. and commercial development will grow further in 2018 in automotive, flexible electronics, coatings and sensors.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities-historical, current and forecast to 2027.
  • Current and planned graphene products.
  • Market outlook for 2018.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including tonnage demand by market, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tons 2017-2027.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 230 company profiles.

Additional information from previous editions includes:

  • 20 new company profiles.
  • Expanded product developer profiles, by market.
  • Assessment of the market in 2018.
  • Expanded data on addressable markets for graphene (revenues), relevant applications, graphene technology fit and competition from other materials.
  • New information on demand by regional demand by end user market.
  • Latest product and investment news to June 2018.
  • Commercial production capacities by company, and by year, for Graphene Oxide, Graphene Nanolatelets and CVD Graphene in tons and m2

The following companies and universities have purchased this report and previous editions: Flagship Appraisals and Consulting Limited, Peking University, Industrial Growth Platform, Inc., University of Manchester, NTherma Corporation, Callaway Golf, Fraunhofer Institute, Denso Corporation, Grafoid, ITRI Taiwan, Directa Plus, Gnanomat etc.

Published: September 2018 | Pages: 815 pages | 226 tables, 206 figures |

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.1    Market opportunity analysis  47
1.1    Market challenges rating system  49

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2.1 Two-dimensional (2D) materials 52 2.2 Graphene 52 2.2.1 The market in 2016 53 2.2.2 The market in 2017 53 2.2.3 Production 54 2.2.4 Products 56 2.2.5 Graphene investments 2016-2017 58 2.3 Market outlook for 2018 59 2.3.1 Global funding and initiatives 65 2.3.2 Products and applications 66 2.3.3 Production 67 2.3.4 Market drivers and trends 69 2.3.4.1 Production exceeds demand 69 2.3.4.2 Market revenues remain small 69 2.3.4.3 Scalability and cost 69 2.3.4.4 Applications hitting the market 70 2.3.4.5 Wait and see? 71 2.3.4.6 Asia and US lead the race 71 2.3.4.7 China commercializing at a fast rate 72 2.3.4.8 Competition from other materials 72 2.3.5 Market and technical challenges 73 2.3.5.1 Inconsistent supply quality 73 2.3.5.2 Functionalization and dispersion 74 2.3.5.3 Cost 74 2.3.5.4 Product integration 74 2.3.5.5 Regulation and standards 74 2.3.5.6 Lack of a band gap 75 2.4 Key players 75 2.4.1 Asia-Pacific 75 2.4.1.1 Australia 77 2.4.2 North America 78 2.4.3 Europe 78
3 PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS 3.1 Categorization 80
4 OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE 4.1 History 82 4.2 Forms of graphene 83 4.3 Properties 84 4.4 3D Graphene 86 4.5 Graphene Quantum Dots 86 4.5.1 Synthesis 88 4.5.2 Applications 88 4.5.2.1 Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics 88 4.5.2.2 Energy 88 4.5.2.3 Biomedicine and healthcare 89 4.5.2.4 Other 89 4.5.2.5 Pricing 90 4.5.3 Producers 90
5 CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE 5.1 Comparative properties 93 5.2 Cost and production 94 5.3 Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids 95 5.4 Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene 96
6 OTHER 2-D MATERIALS 6.1 Black phosphorus/Phosphorene 99 6.1.1 Properties 99 6.1.2 Applications 100 6.2 C2N 101 6.2.1 Properties 102 6.2.2 Applications 102 6.3 Carbon nitride 103 6.3.1 Properties 103 6.3.2 Applications 103 6.4 Germanene 104 6.4.1 Properties 104 6.4.2 Applications 105 6.5 Graphdiyne 105 6.5.1 Properties 106 6.5.2 Applications 106 6.6 Graphane 107 6.6.1 Properties 107 6.6.2 Applications 108 6.7 Hexagonal boron nitride 109 6.7.1 Properties 109 6.7.2 Applications 110 6.7.3 Producers 110 6.8 Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) 110 6.8.1 Properties 111 6.8.2 Applications 111 6.9 Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) 114 6.9.1 Properties 114 6.9.2 Applications 114 6.10 Silicene 115 6.10.1 Properties 115 6.10.2 Applications 116 6.11 Stanene/tinene 117 6.11.1 Properties 118 6.11.2 Applications 119 6.12 Tungsten diselenide 119 6.12.1 Properties 119 6.12.2 Applications 120 6.13 Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials 121
7 GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS 7.1 Large area graphene films 123 7.2 Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets 124 7.3 Production methods 125 7.3.1 Production directly from natural graphite ore 127 7.3.2 Alternative starting materials 127 7.3.3 Quality 127 7.4 Synthesis and production by types of graphene 128 7.4.1 Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) 129 7.4.2 Graphene nanoribbons 129 7.4.3 Large-area graphene films 130 7.4.4 Graphene oxide (GO) 131 7.5 Pros and cons of graphene production methods 132 7.5.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 133 7.5.2 Exfoliation method 134 7.5.3 Epitaxial growth method 134 7.5.4 Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation) 135 7.5.5 Micromechanical cleavage method 136 7.5.6 Green reduction of graphene oxide 136 7.5.7 Plasma 136 7.6 Recent synthesis methods 137 8 GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION 9 REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 9.1 Standards 148 9.2 Environmental, health and safety regulation 148 9.2.1 Europe 149 9.2.2 United States 149 9.2.3 Asia 149 9.3 Workplace exposure 150
10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS 10.1 Fabrication processes 151 10.2 Academia 151 10.3 Regional leaders 152 11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL 155 12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2013-2018-INVESTMENTS, PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION 12.1 JANUARY 2013 157 12.2 FEBRUARY 2013 157 12.3 APRIL 2013 157 12.4 MAY 2013 158 12.5 JUNE 2013 158 12.6 JULY 2013 159 12.7 AUGUST 2013 159 12.8 SEPTEMBER 2013 159 12.9 OCTOBER 2013 160 12.10 NOVEMBER 2013 160 12.11 DECEMBER 2013 161 12.12 JANUARY 2014 162 12.13 FEBRUARY 2014 163 12.14 MARCH 2014 164 12.15 APRIL 2014 165 12.16 MAY 2014 166 12.17 JUNE 2014 166 12.18 JULY 2014 167 12.19 AUGUST 2014 168 12.20 SEPTEMBER 2014 168 12.21 AUGUST 2014 169 12.22 SEPTEMBER 2014 170 12.23 OCTOBER 2014 170 12.24 NOVEMBER 2014 171 12.25 DECEMBER 2014 172 12.26 JANUARY 2015 173 12.27 FEBRUARY 2015 174 12.28 MARCH 2015 174 12.29 APRIL 2015 175 12.30 MAY 2015 175 12.31 JUNE 2015 176 12.32 JULY 2015 177 12.33 AUGUST 2015 178 12.34 SEPTEMBER 2015 179 12.35 OCTOBER 2015 179 12.36 NOVEMBER 2015 180 12.37 DECEMBER 2015 182 12.38 JANUARY 2016 183 12.39 FEBRUARY 2016 183 12.40 MARCH 2016 184 12.41 APRIL 2016 185 12.42 MAY 2016 188 12.43 JUNE 2016 190 12.44 JULY 2016 190 12.45 AUGUST 2016 191 12.46 SEPTEMBER 2016 191 12.47 OCTOBER 2016 192 12.48 NOVEMBER 2016 193 12.49 DECEMBER 2016 195 12.50 JANUARY 2017 196 12.51 FEBRUARY 2017 196 12.52 MARCH 2017 197 12.53 APRIL 2017 199 12.54 MAY 2017 199 12.55 JUNE 2017 200 12.56 JULY 2017 200 12.57 AUGUST 2017 201 12.58 SEPTEMBER 2017 202 12.59 OCTOBER 2017 204 12.60 NOVEMBER 2017 205 12.61 DECEMBER 2017 205
13 END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS 13.1 Graphene production volumes 2010-2027 207 13.2 Graphene pricing 209 13.2.1 Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing 210 13.2.2 Few-Layer Graphene pricing 211 13.2.3 Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing 212 13.2.4 Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing 212 13.2.5 Graphene Quantum Dots pricing 213 13.2.6 Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing 214 13.2.7 Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing 215 13.2.8 Mass production of lower grade graphene materials 215 13.2.9 High grade graphene difficult to mass produce 216 13.2.10 Bulk supply 216 13.2.11 Commoditisation 217 13.3 Graphene producers and production capacities 217
14 3D PRINTING 14.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 219 14.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 219 14.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 221 14.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 222 14.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 223
15 ADHESIVES 15.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 224 15.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 225 15.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 226 15.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 229 15.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 230
16 AEROSPACE 16.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 230 16.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 232 16.2.1 Composites 232 16.2.2 Coatings 232 16.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY 234 16.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 238 16.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 239
17 AUTOMOTIVE 17.1 MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS 240 17.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 242 17.2.1 Composites 243 17.2.2 Thermally conductive additives 243 17.2.3 Tires 244 17.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 245 17.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 249 17.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 250
18 COATINGS 18.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 252 18.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 257 18.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 267 18.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 275 18.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 275
19 COMPOSITES 19.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 278 19.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 280 19.2.1 Polymer composites 280 19.2.2 Barrier packaging 283 19.2.3 Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 283 19.2.4 Wind turbines 283 19.2.5 Ballistic protection 284 19.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 284 19.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 288 19.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 289
20 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS 20.1 FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS 291 20.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 291 20.1.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 294 20.1.2.1 Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics 297 20.1.2.2 Electronic paper 299 20.1.2.3 Wearable electronics 300 20.1.2.4 Wearable sensors 304 20.1.2.5 Industrial monitoring 309 20.1.2.6 Military 309 20.1.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 310 20.1.4 Transparent conductive electrodes 314 20.1.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 315 20.1.6 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 319 20.2 CONDUCTIVE INKS 320 20.2.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 320 20.2.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 322 20.2.2.1 RFID 324 20.2.2.2 Smart labels 326 20.2.2.3 Smart clothing 327 20.2.2.4 Printable sensors 327 20.2.2.5 Printed batteries 327 20.2.2.6 Printable antennas 329 20.2.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 330 20.2.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 335 20.2.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 336 20.3 TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 337 20.3.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 337 20.3.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 339 20.3.2.1 Integrated circuits 339 20.3.2.2 Transistors 340 20.3.2.3 Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits 340 20.3.2.4 Graphene spintronics 341 20.3.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 343 20.3.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 345 20.3.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 347 20.4 MEMORY DEVICES 349 20.4.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 349 20.4.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 350 20.4.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 352 20.4.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 353 20.4.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 354 20.5 PHOTONICS 354 20.5.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 355 20.5.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 355 20.5.2.1 Si photonics versus graphene 355 20.5.2.2 Optical modulators 356 20.5.2.3 Photodetectors 357 20.5.2.4 Saturable absorbers 359 20.5.2.5 Plasmonics 359 20.5.2.6 Fiber lasers 359 20.5.3 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 360 20.5.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 361 20.5.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 361
21 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION 21.1 BATTERIES 364 21.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 364 21.1.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 367 21.1.2.1 Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) 367 21.1.2.2 Lithium-air batteries 369 21.1.2.3 Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S) 369 21.1.2.4 Sodium-ion batteries 369 21.1.2.5 Flexible and stretchable batteries 369 21.1.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 373 21.1.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 378 21.1.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 382 21.2 SUPERCAPACITORS 383 21.2.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 383 21.2.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 383 21.2.2.1 Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors 386 21.2.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 388 21.2.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 391 21.2.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 392 21.2.5.1 Low energy storage capacity of graphene 392 21.3 PHOTOVOLTAICS 393 21.3.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 393 21.3.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 395 21.3.2.1 ITO replacement 395 21.3.2.2 Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells 396 21.3.2.3 Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids 396 21.3.2.4 Solar energy harvesting textiles 396 21.3.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE 398 21.3.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 400 21.3.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 401 21.4 FUEL CELLS 402 21.4.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 402 21.4.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 403 21.4.2.1 Electrocatalyst supports 404 21.4.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GRAPHENE OPPORTUNITY 405 21.4.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 406 21.4.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 407 21.5 LED LIGHTING AND UVC 407 21.5.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 408 21.5.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 408 21.5.2.1 Flexible OLED lighting 409 21.5.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 410 21.5.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 411 21.5.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 412 21.6 OIL AND GAS 413 21.6.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 413 21.6.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 414 21.6.2.1 Sensing and reservoir management 415 21.6.2.2 Coatings 416 21.6.2.3 Drilling fluids 417 21.6.2.4 Sorbent materials 418 21.6.2.5 Catalysts 418 21.6.2.6 Separation 419 21.6.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 420 21.6.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 422 21.6.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 423
22 FILTRATION 22.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 423 22.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 425 22.2.1 Water filtration 426 22.2.2 Gas separation 427 22.2.3 Photocatalytic absorbents 427 22.2.4 Air filtration 428 22.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 429 22.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 431 22.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 432
23 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL 23.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 434 23.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 437 23.2.1 Cancer therapy 440 23.2.1.1 Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery 440 23.2.1.2 Graphene nanosheets 441 23.2.1.3 Gene delivery 441 23.2.1.4 Photodynamic Therapy 441 23.2.2 Medical implants and devices 441 23.2.3 Wound dressings 442 23.2.4 Biosensors 442 23.2.4.1 FRET biosensors for DNA detection 443 23.2.5 Medical imaging 444 23.2.6 Tissue engineering 444 23.2.7 Dental 444 23.2.8 Electrophysiology 445 23.2.9 Wearable and mobile health monitoring 445 23.2.9.1 Graphene devices 447 23.2.9.2 Patch-type skin sensors 450 23.2.9.3 Skin temperature monitoring 452 23.2.9.4 Hydration sensors 453 23.2.9.5 Wearable sweat sensors 454 23.2.9.6 Smart footwear 456 23.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 456 23.3.1 Wearable healthcare 458 23.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 463 23.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 466
24 LUBRICANTS 24.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 467 24.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 468 24.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 469 24.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 471 24.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 472
25 RUBBER AND TIRES 25.1 APPLICATIONS 472 25.2 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 473 25.3 MARKET CHALLENGES 475 25.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 476
26 SENSORS 26.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 477 26.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 478 26.2.1 Infrared (IR) sensors 481 26.2.2 Electrochemical and gas sensors 481 26.2.2.1 Graphene foam 482 26.2.3 Pressure sensors 482 26.2.4 Biosensors 483 26.2.5 Optical sensors 485 26.2.6 Humidity sensors 485 26.2.7 Strain sensors 485 26.2.8 Acoustic sensors 485 26.2.9 Wireless sensors 486 26.2.10 Surface enhanced Raman scattering 486 26.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 486 26.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 489 26.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 490
27 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL 27.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 492 27.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS 495 27.2.1 Conductive coatings 501 27.2.2 Conductive yarns 502 27.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE 503 27.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 508 27.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 509
28 OTHER MARKETS 28.1 CEMENT ADDITIVES 510 28.1.1 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 511
29 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS 512-592 (117 company profiles) 30 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS 594-660 (106 company profiles) 31 REFERENCES LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2027 55 Table 2: Consumer products incorporating graphene 57 Table 3: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017 58 Table 4: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications 61 Table 5: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size 66 Table 6: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities 68 Table 7: Categorization of nanomaterials 80 Table 8: Properties of graphene 85 Table 9: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs 87 Table 10: Graphene quantum dot producers 90 Table 11: Comparative properties of carbon materials 93 Table 12: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes 95 Table 13: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027 96 Table 14: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2 100 Table 15: Markets and applications of phosphorene 100 Table 16: Markets and applications of C2N 102 Table 17: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride 105 Table 18: Markets and applications of graphdiyne 106 Table 19: Markets and applications of graphane 108 Table 20: Markets and applications of hexagonal boron-nitride 110 Table 21: Markets and applications of MoS2 112 Table 22: Markets and applications of Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) 114 Table 23: Markets and applications of silicene 116 Table 24: Markets and applications of stanene/tinene 119 Table 25: Markets and applications of tungsten diselenide 120 Table 26: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials 121 Table 27: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market 123 Table 28: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market 124 Table 29: Main production methods for graphene 125 Table 30: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market 131 Table 31: Graphene synthesis methods, by company 142 Table 32: Graphene market structure 144 Table 33: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014 152 Table 34: Leading graphene patentees 153 Table 35: Industrial graphene patents in 2014 153 Table 36: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2015 207 Table 37: Types of graphene and prices 209 Table 38: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer 210 Table 39: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer 211 Table 40: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer 212 Table 41: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer 213 Table 42: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer 214 Table 43: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer 214 Table 44: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer 215 Table 45: Production capacities of graphene producers, current and planned, metric tons 217 Table 46: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing 219 Table 47: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing 220 Table 48: Market size for graphene in 3D printing 221 Table 49: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing 221 Table 50: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market 222 Table 51: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry 223 Table 52: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives 224 Table 53: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives 225 Table 54: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives 225 Table 55: Market size for graphene in adhesives 226 Table 56: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives 227 Table 57: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027 228 Table 58: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market 229 Table 59: Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry 230 Table 60: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace 231 Table 61: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace 233 Table 62: Market size for graphene in aerospace 235 Table 63: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace 236 Table 64: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027 237 Table 65: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market 239 Table 66: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry 239 Table 67: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector 240 Table 68: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry 244 Table 69: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry 245 Table 70: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry 246 Table 71: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2027 248 Table 72: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector 250 Table 73: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive sector 250 Table 74: Properties of nanocoatings 252 Table 75: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings 258 Table 76: Markets for nanocoatings 268 Table 77: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market 272 Table 78: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027 274 Table 79: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market 275 Table 80: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry 275 Table 81: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites 278 Table 82: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites 281 Table 83: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites 281 Table 84: Market size for graphene in composites 284 Table 85: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market 285 Table 86: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027 287 Table 87: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market 289 Table 88: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry 289 Table 89: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 291 Table 90: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 295 Table 91: Comparison of ITO replacements 297 Table 92: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development 300 Table 93: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors 307 Table 94: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 310 Table 95: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays 312 Table 96: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $ 314 Table 97: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market 318 Table 98: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films 319 Table 99: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks 320 Table 100: Comparative properties of conductive inks 322 Table 101: Printable electronics products 324 Table 102: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics 325 Table 103: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof 328 Table 104: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks 331 Table 105: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks 333 Table 106: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types 335 Table 107: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks 335 Table 108: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks 336 Table 109: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 337 Table 110: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors 340 Table 111: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 342 Table 112: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 343 Table 113: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 344 Table 114: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market 346 Table 115: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits 347 Table 116: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices 349 Table 117: Market size for graphene in memory devices 352 Table 118: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices 353 Table 119: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market 354 Table 120: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics 355 Table 121: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators 356 Table 122: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics 360 Table 123: Market size for graphene in photonics 360 Table 124: Graphene product and application developers in photonics 361 Table 125: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market 362 Table 126: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries 364 Table 127: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development 370 Table 128: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof 372 Table 129: Market size for graphene in batteries 375 Table 130: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 376 Table 131: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries 377 Table 132: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027 378 Table 133: Graphene product and application developers in the battery industry 378 Table 134: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market 382 Table 135: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors 383 Table 136: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries 385 Table 137: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors 385 Table 138: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof 387 Table 139: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors 389 Table 140: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors 390 Table 141: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027 390 Table 142: Graphene product and application developers in supercapacitors 391 Table 143: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market 393 Table 144: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics 393 Table 145: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics 398 Table 146: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics 399 Table 147: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics 399 Table 148: Graphene product and application developers in photovoltaics 400 Table 149: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market 401 Table 150: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 402 Table 151: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 404 Table 152: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 405 Table 153: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 405 Table 154: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market 406 Table 155: Graphene product and application developers in fuel cells 407 Table 156: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC 408 Table 157: Applications of graphene in lighting 408 Table 158: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC 410 Table 159: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market 411 Table 160: Market impediments for graphene in lighting 411 Table 161: Graphene product and application developers in the LED and UVC lighting market 412 Table 162: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas 413 Table 163: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market 414 Table 164: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas 420 Table 165: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market 421 Table 166: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the oil and gas market 421 Table 167: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market 422 Table 168: Graphene product and application developers in the oil and gas market 423 Table 169: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration 423 Table 170: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation 426 Table 171: Market size for graphene in filtration 429 Table 172: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market 430 Table 173: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027 430 Table 174: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market 431 Table 175: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry 432 Table 176: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market 434 Table 177: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare 437 Table 178: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical 438 Table 179: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof 448 Table 180: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare 457 Table 181: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets 460 Table 182: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets 461 Table 183: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027 462 Table 184: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare 464 Table 185: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market 465 Table 186: Graphene product and application developers in the biomedical and healthcare industry 466 Table 187: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants 467 Table 188: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market 468 Table 189: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants 469 Table 190: Market size for graphene in lubricants 469 Table 191: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants 470 Table 192: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027 470 Table 193: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market 471 Table 194: Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry 472 Table 195: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires 472 Table 196: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market 473 Table 197: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market 473 Table 198: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027 474 Table 199: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires 475 Table 200: Companies developing graphene-based products in rubber and tires 476 Table 201: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors 477 Table 202: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors 479 Table 203: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors 480 Table 204: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor 484 Table 205: Market size for graphene in sensors 486 Table 206: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market 487 Table 207: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market 489 Table 208: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry 490 Table 209: Types of smart textiles 492 Table 210: Smart textile products 492 Table 211: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel 493 Table 212: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications 495 Table 213: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials 500 Table 214: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel 501 Table 215: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 504 Table 216: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel 507 Table 217: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027 507 Table 218: Market impediments for graphene in textiles 508 Table 219: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel 509 Table 220: Graphene product and application developers in the textiles industry 509 Table 221: Graphene product and application developers in the cement industry 511 Table 222: Graphene producers and types produced 512 Table 223: Graphene producers target market matrix 516 Table 224: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets 594 Table 225: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix 598 FIGURES Figure 1: Graphene production capacity, current and planned 55 Figure 2: Demand for graphene, 2010-2027 56 Figure 3: Vittoria bike tires incorporating graphene 57 Figure 4: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027 60 Figure 5: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2017 66 Figure 6: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region 72 Figure 7: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 76 Figure 8: Graphene layer structure schematic 82 Figure 9: Graphite and graphene 83 Figure 10: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene 84 Figure 11: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4) 87 Figure 12: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots 89 Figure 13: Graphene quantum dots 90 Figure 14: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite 92 Figure 15: Black phosphorus structure 99 Figure 16: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal 102 Figure 17: Schematic of germanene 104 Figure 18: Graphdiyne structure 106 Figure 19: Schematic of Graphane crystal 107 Figure 20: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride 109 Figure 21: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide 111 Figure 22: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor 112 Figure 23: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge 113 Figure 24: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide 114 Figure 25: Silicene structure 115 Figure 26: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate 116 Figure 27: Silicene transistor 117 Figure 28: Crystal structure for stanene 118 Figure 29: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111) 118 Figure 30: Schematic of tungsten diselenide 119 Figure 31: Graphene synthesis methods 126 Figure 32: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF 127 Figure 33: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium 130 Figure 34: Methods of synthesizing high-quality graphene 132 Figure 35: Roll-to-roll graphene production process 137 Figure 36: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process 138 Figure 37: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene 140 Figure 38: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer 144 Figure 39: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014 152 Figure 40: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene 156 Figure 41: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year 208 Figure 42: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament 220 Figure 43: Graphene Adhesives 225 Figure 44: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives 228 Figure 45: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027 229 Figure 46: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace 237 Figure 47: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace 237 Figure 48: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027 238 Figure 49: Graphene-based automotive components 243 Figure 50: Antistatic graphene tire 244 Figure 51: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector 247 Figure 52: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector 248 Figure 53: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2027 249 Figure 54: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT 258 Figure 55: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating 263 Figure 56: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate 266 Figure 57: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market 267 Figure 58: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market 273 Figure 59: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market 274 Figure 60: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027 274 Figure 61: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites 286 Figure 62: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market 287 Figure 63: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027 288 Figure 64: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application 294 Figure 65: Flexible graphene touch screen 295 Figure 66: Galapad Settler smartphone 295 Figure 67: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode 296 Figure 68: Graphene electrochromic devices Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte 298 Figure 69: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film 299 Figure 70: Foldable graphene E-paper 299 Figure 71: Covestro wearables 301 Figure 72: Softceptor sensor 304 Figure 73: BeBop Media Arm Controller 305 Figure 74: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor 305 Figure 75: C2Sense flexible sensor 306 Figure 76: Wearable gas sensor 308 Figure 77: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves 309 Figure 78: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System 309 Figure 79: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system 310 Figure 80: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market 313 Figure 81: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $ 314 Figure 82: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $ 315 Figure 83: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates 317 Figure 84: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene 318 Figure 85: Graphene printed antenna 322 Figure 86: BGT Materials graphene ink product 323 Figure 87: Flexible RFID tag 325 Figure 88: Enfucell Printed Battery 329 Figure 89: Graphene printed antenna 329 Figure 90: Printed antennas for aircraft 330 Figure 91: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products 331 Figure 92: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market 332 Figure 93: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types 334 Figure 94: Graphene IC in wafer tester 339 Figure 95: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array 340 Figure 96: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right) 341 Figure 97: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits 344 Figure 98: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market 345 Figure 99: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate 350 Figure 100: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM) 351 Figure 101: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt 352 Figure 102: Hybrid graphene phototransistors 358 Figure 103: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors 358 Figure 104: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive 359 Figure 105: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors 364 Figure 106: Energy harvesting textile 367 Figure 107: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery 370 Figure 108: Printed 1.5V battery 372 Figure 109: H600 concept car 374 Figure 110: Anion concept car 374 Figure 111: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market 377 Figure 112: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027 378 Figure 113: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor 384 Figure 114: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger 386 Figure 115: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor 387 Figure 116: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027 391 Figure 117: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode 396 Figure 118: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper 397 Figure 119: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics 400 Figure 120: LG OLED flexible lighting panel 409 Figure 121: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight 410 Figure 122: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors 415 Figure 123: Directa Plus Grafysorber 418 Figure 124: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water 419 Figure 125: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts 428 Figure 126: Graphene anti-smog mask 428 Figure 127: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027 431 Figure 128: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel 443 Figure 129: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis 444 Figure 130: Connected human body 445 Figure 131: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor 446 Figure 132: Graphene-based E-skin patch 447 Figure 133: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs 451 Figure 134: Graphene medical patch 452 Figure 135: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer 453 Figure 136: Mimo baby monitor 453 Figure 137: Nanowire skin hydration patch 454 Figure 138: Wearable sweat sensor 455 Figure 139: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor 456 Figure 140: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $ 459 Figure 141: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $ 460 Figure 142: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market 462 Figure 143: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027 463 Figure 144: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027 471 Figure 145: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027 475 Figure 146: GFET sensors 482 Figure 147: First generation point of care diagnostics 483 Figure 148: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic 484 Figure 149: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market 489 Figure 150: Conductive yarns 502 Figure 151: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $) 504 Figure 152 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016 505 Figure 153: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate 506 Figure 154: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate 506 Figure 155: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027 508
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Oct 4, 2018
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