Global Markets for Laser Systems, Components and Materials

Global Markets for Laser Systems, Components and Materials

BCC, Date of Publication: Jan 2, 2012, 183 Pages
US$6,650.00
GB-SMC023E

“Laser” is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.  Lasers are not a new invention by any yardstick.  Indeed, most of the mainstream laser categories were invented close to 5 decades ago.  The newest laser categories covered in this report are fiber lasers, which became commercially available over the last 5 years. The operating philosophy and principles are pretty much the same.  In spite of this relative calm on the theoretical front, lasers continue to be part of cutting edge devices across verticals.  A cursory look at the applications of lasers reveals that not only are lasers part of the state of the art, they are instrumental in driving the state of the art itself.  The continuing appeal of lasers underlines the sovereignty of their value proposition, which can be summed up as coherent, powerful, and pure light.

The generic nature of lasers’ appeal also leads to interesting dilemmas.  It is impossible to characterize the laser market as a whole.  The picture of its market is a combination of pictures created by the dynamics of the verticals that lasers are employed in and created by the dynamics of raw materials that lasers employ.  This disparity is manifested most clearly in the wide range of average selling price values of its modules depending on the application and the energy medium.  These values can range from as little as a dollar to tens of thousands of dollars.  It would not be out of place to mention that lasers are a fairly accurate indicator of the health of the markets at large.

This report is an attempt to list, elaborate, highlight, and analyze the multitudes of demand and supply side dynamics of lasers at large.

The report focuses on laser modules - lasers at their bare minimum.  This distinction is important, as laser modules are available in varied levels of readiness for integration.  Customization is the name of the game for lasers, and lasers modules are designed with a particular application in mind more often than not.  This report defines a laser module as one that performs basic laser functions of light amplification and focus.  The report uses the terms lasers and laser modules interchangeably.  The market forecasts do not cover the metrics of the devices that lasers are eventually integrated in.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

  • Measuring and forecasting the global market size for laser modules in value (dollar sales) and volume (shipment sales) terms
  • Breaking down the global laser market along individual energy medium type in value and volume terms: diode, fiber, carbon dioxide, solid-state, excimer, dye, and other gas lasers
  • Breaking down the global laser market along individual end applications in value and volume terms: telecommunications; instrumentation and scientific research; medicine; energy, defense, and surveillance; computing and entertainment; industrial and automotive; as well as retail and others
  • Breaking down the global laser market along individual regions in value and volume terms: the Americas; Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA); and Asia Pacific (APAC)
  • Breaking down the global laser market along value chain contributors: active material, firing source and other components, as well as operating margins
  • Breaking down the market for individual laser type along individual end applications in value and volume terms: telecommunications; instrumentation and scientific research; medicine; energy, defense, and surveillance; computing and entertainment; industrial and automotive; as well as retail and others
  • Breaking down the market for individual laser type along individual regions in value and volume terms: the Americas; Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA); and Asia Pacific (APAC)
  • Breaking down the market for individual laser type along value chain contributors: active material, firing source and other components, as well as operating margins
  • Breaking down the global laser market along key individual countries in value and volume terms: USA, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Russia, Spain, the Netherlands, Turkey, China, Japan, India, South Korea, and Indonesia
  • Analyzing the stakeholder landscape in the laser value chain
  • Analyzing the patenting activity involving laser modules

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The laser market is extremely fragmented at all levels – innovation, design, manufacturing, integration, and sales.  While the technology driving lasers is fairly consistent in its underpinnings, there is no single market research study that attempts to present a composite picture of the overall market for lasers and modules spanning major application verticals and major laser types.  It is impossible to forecast the market size for laser modules in isolation.  One has to consider the extremely varied scenarios that characterize its demand and supply side dynamics.  The former is represented by the end application verticals while the latter is manifested in energy media defining the laser types.  This report breaks down the laser market along all major categories on both the sides.

In times of economic downturn, it is important to analyze the profitability of engaging in laser manufacturing ventures.  This report attempts to quantify the various stages of value additions in laser revenue generation.

A study of lasers is nothing short of a complete macroeconomic analysis.  This report provides a granular view of individual country markets in volume and value terms in 17 key nations spanning all global regions.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT

The report forecasts the size of the market in current U.S. dollars as well as in millions of shipment units for lasers from 2011 through 2016.

The report forecasts the market size for the following:

  • Individual laser types such as diode, fiber, carbon dioxide, solid-state, excimer, dye, and other gas lasers
  • The above forecasts are classified on the basis of end application vertical, geographical region and seventeen key nations on volume and value bases as well as value chain contributors on value basis.

The Executive Summary provides a snapshot of key findings of the report.

The chapter on theory of lasers and their applications introduces and explains central operating concepts of lasers and then enlists key laser applications.

The chapter on dynamics of laser types highlights differences and also identifies important common threads that run through diverse laser types.

The chapter on global markets provides a 360-degree view of the laser market quantitatively.

The chapter on regional analysis – Americas presents the overall market metrics and overview of the region followed by analyses of individual major countries such as USA, Brazil, Canada, and Mexico.

The chapter on regional analysis – EMEA presents the overall market metrics and overview of the region followed by analyses of individual major countries such as Germany, France, UK, Spain, Italy, Russia, the Netherlands, and Turkey.

The chapter on regional analysis – APAC presents the overall market metrics and overview of the region followed by analyses of individual major countries such as China, Japan, India, South Korea, and Indonesia.

The chapter on stakeholders and value highlights stakeholder categories and analyzes their activities in this domain and clarifies where and how they fit in the larger picture.

The U.S. Patent Analysis chapter highlights the patenting activity underway in the area of laser modules.  The chapter classifies the patents awarded according to categories such as carbon dioxide lasers, dye lasers, excimer lasers, fiber lasers, generic gas lasers, helium based lasers, ion lasers, quantum cascade lasers, general semiconductor lasers, solid-state lasers, and vertical cavity surface-emitting laser VCSELs.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

  • Laser module manufacturers to analyze the market prospects for their offerings broken down by laser type, end application, geographical regions, and key country markets
  • Allied component suppliers to identify the sunrise and sunset technology trends among lasers
  • Original equipment manufacturers and other laser integrators to analyze the prospects of the laser technology employed by them in their devices, equipment and products


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  
    STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES   1
    REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY  2
    SCOPE OF REPORT  2
    INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
    METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES  4
    ANALYST CREDENTIALS  4
    RELATED REPORTS   4
    DISCLAIMER   5

CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY 

    SUMMARY  6
   SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE BATTERY-
     POWERED PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)  7
   SUMMARY FIGURE A TOTAL MARKET FOR PORTABLE BATTERY-
     POWERED PRODUCTS, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS)  7
   SUMMARY FIGURE B MARKET FOR PORTABLE BATTERY-
     POWERED PRODUCTS, 2011 (%)   8

CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW  9
    DEFINITION OF THE PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT
      INDUSTRY  9
         BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT DEFINITION AND
           CONCEPTS   9
   TABLE 1 PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT DEFINITIONS
     AND SCOPE  10
   TABLE 1 (CONTINUED)   11
   TABLE 2 IMPORTANT PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT
     CONCEPTS  12
   TABLE 2 (CONTINUED)   13
                  BATTERY DEFINITION AND CONCEPTS  14
   TABLE 3        COMMERCIAL SECONDARY BATTERY TYPES  15
   TABLE 3        (CONTINUED)   16
   TABLE 4        COMMERCIAL PRIMARY BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS  17
   TABLE 4        (CONTINUED)   18
             BATTERY CHARGER DEFINITION AND CONCEPTS   18
                  Types of Portable Product Battery Chargers   19
                        External Chargers  19
                        Internal Chargers   20
         PRODUCT AND TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE   21
   TABLE 5 GENERIC PORTABLE-PRODUCT MANUFACTURING TREE 22
   TABLE 5 (CONTINUED)   23
        HISTORIC AND FUTURE ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF
          PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCTS   23
   TABLE 6 PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT ECONOMIC
     IMPACT  23
   TABLE 6 (CONTINUED)   24
        SIGNIFICANCE OF GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS  25
   TABLE 7 IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION   25
   TABLE 7 (CONTINUED)   26

CHAPTER FOUR: PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKETS 
    MARKET BY PRODUCTS   27
         PORTABLE MULTI-FUNCTIONAL HANDHELD AND
           COMMUNICATIONS   27
              Portable Multi-Functional Handheld and
                 Communications Product Introduction and Market
                 Elements   27
                    Portable Multi-Functional   (Continued)   28
                    Portable Multi-Functional   (Continued)   29
              Portable Multi-functional Handheld and Communications
                 Product Companies  30
   TABLE 8 SMARTPHONE AND CELL PHONE COMPANIES   30
   TABLE 9 CORDLESS PHONE COMPANIES  31
   TABLE 10 RADIOPHONE AND TWO-WAY HANDHELD
     TRANSCEIVER COMPANIES 31
   TABLE 11 PAGER COMPANIES 31
   TABLE 12 MULTI-FUNCTIONAL HANDHELD DEVICE COMPANIES   32
                            Portable Multi-functional Handheld and Communications
                               Product Forecasts   32
                                  Portable Multi-functional Handheld Product
                                     Growth Drivers and Inhibitors   32
   TABLE 13 PORTABLE MULTI-FUNCTIONAL HANDHELD AND
     COMMUNICATIONS PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS AND
     INHIBITORS 33
   TABLE 13 (CONTINUED)   34
                                     Portable Multi-functional Handheld and
                                        Communications Product Assumptions and Past
                                        Performance   34
   TABLE 14 APPLE IPHONE SHIPMENTS BY FISCAL QUARTERS,
     2007-2011 (UNITS)  35
                                     Portable Multi-functional Handheld and
                                        Communications Product 5-Year Forecast   36
   TABLE 15 GLOBAL PORTABLE MULTI-FUNCTIONAL HANDHELD
     AND COMMUNICATION PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2016  36
                  PORTABLE ENTERTAINMENT AND PUBLISHING 37
                         Portable Entertainment and Publishing Product
                            Introduction and Market Elements   37
                         Portable Entertainment Product Companies   38
TABLE 16 PORTABLE RADIO, CD/DVD, ACCESSORY, AND
  EPUBLISHING COMPANIES  39
TABLE 17 PORTABLE DIGITAL MUSIC PLAYER COMPANIES  39
TABLE 18 PORTABLE DVD PLAYER COMPANIES   39
TABLE 19 EREADER COMPANIES  40
                         Portable Entertainment Product Forecasts   40
                               Portable Entertainment Product Growth Drivers
                                  and Inhibitors  40
TABLE 20 PORTABLE ENTERTAINMENT AND PUBLISHING
  PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS   40
TABLE 20 (CONTINUED)   41
                                   Portable Entertainment and Publishing Product
                                      Assumptions and Past Performance   41
TABLE 21 APPLE IPOD SHIPMENTS BY FISCAL QUARTERS  42
                                   Portable Entertainment Product 5-Year Forecast  42
TABLE 22 GLOBAL PORTABLE ENTERTAINMENT AND
  PUBLISHING PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2016   43
               PORTABLE COMPUTER PRODUCTS  43
                   Portable Computer Product Introduction and Market
                      Elements   43
                         Portable Computer Product   (Continued)  44
                   Portable Computer Product Companies   45
TABLE 23 LAPTOP COMPANIES 46
TABLE 24 TABLET COMPANIES 46
TABLE 25 CALCULATOR COMPANIES   47
                         Portable Computer Forecasts 47
                               Portable Computer Product Growth Drivers and
                                  Inhibitors   47
TABLE 26 PORTABLE COMPUTER PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS
  AND INHIBITORS  47
TABLE 26 (CONTINUED)   48
TABLE 26 (CONTINUED)   49
                                   Portable Computer Product Assumptions and Past
                                      Performance   49
                                   Portable Computer Product 5-Year Forecast  50
TABLE 27 GLOBAL PORTABLE COMPUTER MARKET, THROUGH
  2016  50
TABLE 27 (CONTINUED)   51
               PORTABLE NAVIGATION   51
                   Portable Navigation Product Introduction and Market
                      Elements   51
                               Portable Navigation  (Continued)  52
                               Portable Navigation  (Continued)  53
                         Portable Navigation Product Companies   54
TABLE 28 HANDHELD GPS COMPANIES  54
                         Portable Navigation Product Forecasts  55
                               Portable Navigation Product Growth Drivers and
                                  Inhibitors   55
TABLE 29 PORTABLE GPS NAVIGATION PRODUCT GROWTH
  DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS 55
                                   Portable Navigation Product Assumptions and Past
                                      Performance   55
                                   Portable Navigation Product 5-Year Forecast   56
TABLE 30 GLOBAL PORTABLE NAVIGATION PRODUCT MARKET,
  THROUGH 2016  56
TABLE 30 (CONTINUED)   57
               PORTABLE CAMERAS   57
                   Portable Camera Product Introduction and Market
                      Elements   57
                   Portable Camera Product Companies  58
TABLE 31 DIGITAL CAMERA COMPANIES   59
                         Portable Camera Product Forecasts   59
                               Portable Camera Product Growth Drivers and
                                  Inhibitors   59
TABLE 32 PORTABLE CAMERA GROWTH DRIVERS AND
  INHIBITORS 59
TABLE 32 (CONTINUED)   60
                                   Portable Camera Product Assumptions and Past
                                      Performance   60
                                   Portable Camera Product 5-Year Forecast  60
TABLE 33 GLOBAL PORTABLE CAMERA MARKET, THROUGH 2016   61
               PORTABLE TIMEPIECES  61
                   Portable Timepiece Introduction and Market Elements   61
                         Portable Timepiece   (Continued)  62
                   Portable Timepiece Companies   63
                   Portable Timepiece Forecasts   63
                         Portable Timepiece Growth Drivers and Inhibitors  63
TABLE 34 PORTABLE TIMEPIECE GROWTH DRIVERS AND
  INHIBITORS 63
                                   Portable Timepiece Assumptions and Past
                                      Performance   63
                                   Portable Timepiece 5-Year Forecast  64
TABLE 35 GLOBAL PORTABLE TIMEPIECE MARKET, THROUGH
  2016  65
               PORTABLE TOOLS   65
                        Portable Tools Introduction and Market Elements   65
                              Portable Tools Introduction (Continued)   66
                        Portable Tool Companies  67
                        Portable Tools Forecasts   68
                              Portable Tools Growth Drivers and Inhibitors  68
TABLE 36 PORTABLE TOOLS PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS AND
  INHIBITORS 69
                                 Portable Tools Assumptions and Past Performance   69
                                 Portable Tools 5-Year Forecast  70
TABLE 37 GLOBAL PORTABLE TOOLS MARKET, THROUGH 2016  70
TABLE 37 (CONTINUED)   71
              PORTABLE LIGHTING  71
                  Portable Lighting Product Introduction and Market
                     Elements   71
                        Portable Lighting   (Continued)   72
                  Portable Lighting Product Companies   73
TABLE 38 GLOBALLY SIGNIFICANT BATTERY-POWERED
  LIGHTING COMPANIES   74
                        Portable Lighting Product Forecasts  74
                              Portable Lighting Product Growth Drivers and
                                 Inhibitors   74
TABLE 39 PORTABLE LIGHTING PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS AND
  INHIBITORS 75
                                 Portable Lighting Product Assumptions and Past
                                    Performance   75
                                 Portable Lighting Product 5-Year Forecast   76
TABLE 40 GLOBAL PORTABLE LIGHTING MARKET, THROUGH 2016  76
TABLE 40 (CONTINUED)   77
              PORTABLE TOYS AND NOVELTIES   77
                  Portable Toys and Novelties Introduction and Market
                     Elements   77
                        Portable Toys   (Continued)  78
                        Portable Toys   (Continued)  79
                  Portable Toys and Novelties Companies  80
TABLE 41 GAME CONSOLE COMPANIES  80
                        Portable Toys and Novelties Forecasts   81
                              Portable Toys and Novelties Growth Drivers and
                                 Inhibitors   81
TABLE 42 PORTABLE TOY AND NOVELTY PRODUCT GROWTH
  DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS 81
                                 Portable Toys and Novelties Assumptions and Past
                                    Performance   82
                                 Portable Toys and Novelties 5-Year Forecast  82
TABLE 43 GLOBAL PORTABLE TOY AND NOVELTY PRODUCT
  MARKET, THROUGH 2016   83
              PORTABLE MEDICAL PRODUCTS  83
                  Portable Medical Product Introduction and Market
                     Elements   83
                        Portable Medical   (Continued)  84
                        Portable Medical   (Continued)  85
                  Portable Medical Product Companies   86
                  Portable Medical Product Forecasts   87
                        Portable Medical Product Growth Drivers and
                           Inhibitors   87
TABLE 44 PORTABLE MEDICAL PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS AND
  INHIBITORS 87
TABLE 44 (CONTINUED)  88
                                 Portable Medical Product Assumptions and Past
                                    Performance   88
                                       Portable  (Continued)   89
                                 Portable Medical Product 5-Year Forecast  90
TABLE 45 GLOBAL PORTABLE MEDICAL PRODUCT MARKET,
  THROUGH 2016  90
              PORTABLE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTS  91
                  Portable Scientific Product Introduction and Market
                     Elements   91
                  Portable Scientific Product Companies  92
TABLE 46 PORTABLE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCT COMPANIES  92
                        Portable Scientific Product Forecasts   92
                              Portable Scientific Product Growth Drivers and
                                 Inhibitors   92
TABLE 47 PORTABLE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS
  AND INHIBITORS  93
                                 Portable Scientific Product Assumptions and Past
                                    Performance   93
                                 Portable Scientific Product 5-Year Forecast  93
TABLE 48 GLOBAL PORTABLE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCT MARKET,
  THROUGH 2016  94
              PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCTS   94
                  Portable Military Product Introduction and Market
                     Elements   94
TABLE 49 SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY
  PRODUCT ROLES  95
                              Portable Military   (Continued)   96
                        Portable Military Product Companies  97
                        Portable Military Product Forecasts  97
                                    Portable Military Product Growth Drivers and
                                       Inhibitors   97
   TABLE 50 PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT GROWTH DRIVERS AND
     INHIBITORS 98
                                    Portable Military Product Assumptions and Past
                                       Performance   99
                                    Portable Military Product 5-Year Forecast   99
   TABLE 51 GLOBAL PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT MARKET,
     THROUGH 2016  100
        PORTABLE PRODUCT APPLICATION SUMMARY  100
   TABLE 52 GLOBAL VALUE OF THE PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED
      PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)   100
   TABLE 52 (CONTINUED)   101
   TABLE 52 (CONTINUED)   102
   TABLE 53 GLOBAL UNIT SHIPMENTS IN THE PORTABLE
      BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT MARKET, THROUGH 2016
      (MILLION UNITS)  102
   TABLE 53 (CONTINUED)   103
   TABLE 54 GLOBAL PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT
      MARKET, THROUGH 2016   104
   FIGURE 1 TOTAL VALUE OF GLOBAL PORTABLE BATTERY-
      POWERED PRODUCT MARKET, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS/%)   105
   FIGURE 1 (CONTINUED)  106

CHAPTER FIVE: PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERIES  
    SECONDARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERIES   107
         NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES   107
              Nickel-Cadmium Battery Introduction and Market
                 Elements   107
              Nickel-Cadmium Battery Market Drivers and Technology
                 Factors  108
              Nickel-Cadmium Battery Companies   109
   TABLE 55 NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY COMPANIES   109
                           Nickel-Cadmium Battery Forecasts   109
                                 Nickel-Cadmium Battery Growth Drivers and
                                    Inhibitors   109
   TABLE 56 NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY GROWTH DRIVERS AND
     INHIBITORS 110
                                    Nickel Cadmium Battery 5-Year Forecast  110
   TABLE 57 GLOBAL NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY MARKET BY
     APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016  111
   TABLE 57 (CONTINUED)   112
   TABLE 58 GLOBAL NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY MARKET BY
     ELEMENT, THROUGH 2016  112
   TABLE 58 (CONTINUED)   113
               NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE BATTERIES  113
                   Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Introduction and Market
                      Elements   113
                   Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Market Drivers and
                      Technology Factors  113
                         Nickel-Metal Hydride  (Continued)   114
                   Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Companies   115
TABLE 59 NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY COMPANIES  115
                        Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Forecasts 115
                              Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Growth Drivers and
                                 Inhibitors   115
TABLE 60 NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY GROWTH DRIVERS
  AND INHIBITORS  116
                                  Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery 5-Year Forecast  116
TABLE 61 GLOBAL NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY MARKET
  BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016  117
TABLE 61 (CONTINUED)   118
TABLE 62 GLOBAL NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE BATTERY MARKET
  BY MARKET ELEMENT, THROUGH 2016  118
TABLE 62 (CONTINUED)   119
               SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES   119
                   Secondary Lithium Battery Introduction and Market
                      Elements   119
TABLE 63 RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY CONFIGURATIONS   120
TABLE 63 (CONTINUED)   121
                        Secondary Lithium Battery Market Drivers and
                           Technology Factors  121
TABLE 64 NON-LITHIUM-ION RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY
  STATUS  121
TABLE 64 (CONTINUED)   122
                                  Lithium-Ion Compared To Lithium-Ion Polymer  123
                                  Lithium-ion as Smart Batteries   124
                                        Lithium-ion  (Continued)   125
                                        Lithium-ion  (Continued)   126
                                        Lithium-ion  (Continued)   127
TABLE 65 SMART BATTERY SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS  128
                              Safety Issues   128
                                    Safety   (Continued) 129
                              Alternative Designs  130
                        Secondary Lithium Battery Companies   131
TABLE 66 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES  132
                        Secondary Lithium Battery Forecasts  133
                              Secondary Lithium Battery Growth Drivers and
                                 Inhibitors   133
TABLE 67 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY GROWTH DRIVERS
  AND INHIBITORS  133
                                Secondary Lithium Battery 5-Year Forecast   134
TABLE 68 GLOBAL SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET BY
  APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016  134
TABLE 68 (CONTINUED)   135
TABLE 69 GLOBAL SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET BY
  MARKET ELEMENT, THROUGH 2016  136
              SPECIALTY SECONDARY BATTERIES   136
                   Specialty Secondary Battery Introduction and Market
                      Elements   136
                         Lead-Acid Battery Introduction   136
                         Nickel-Zinc Battery Introduction   137
                         Silver Battery Introduction  137
                   Specialty Secondary Battery Market Drivers and
                      Technology Factors  138
                         Lead-Acid Battery Market Drivers and Technology
                             Factors 138
                         Nickel-Zinc Battery Market Drivers and
                             Technology Factors  138
                                Nickel-Zinc   (Continued)   139
                                Nickel-Zinc   (Continued)   140
                                Nickel-Zinc   (Continued)   141
TABLE 70 BENEFITS COMPARISON OF POWERGENIX NIZN HIGH
  DISCHARGE BATTERY   142
                             Silver Battery Market Drivers and Technology
                                 Factors 143
                                    Silver  (Continued)   144
                                    Silver  (Continued)   145
                             Magnesium Battery Introduction  146
                                    Magnesium   (Continued)  147
                             Developmental Ionic Batteries   148
                       Specialty Secondary Battery Companies  149
TABLE 71 SPECIALTY SECONDARY BATTERY COMPANIES  150
                       Specialty Secondary Battery Forecasts  150
                             Specialty Secondary Battery Growth Drivers and
                                 Inhibitors   150
TABLE 72 SPECIALTY SECONDARY BATTERY GROWTH DRIVERS
  AND INHIBITORS  150
                                Specialty Secondary Batteries 5-Year Forecast  150
TABLE 73 GLOBAL SPECIALTY SECONDARY BATTERY MARKET BY
  APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016  151
TABLE 73 (CONTINUED)   152
TABLE 74 GLOBAL SPECIALTY SECONDARY BATTERY MARKET BY
  ELEMENT, THROUGH 2016   152
TABLE 74 (CONTINUED)   153
     PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERIES   153
         PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY
           INTRODUCTION AND MARKET ELEMENTS   153
              Alkaline and Zinc-carbon Batteries Introduction  153
              Primary Lithium Battery Introduction  154
              Zinc-Air Battery Introduction   154
              Other Primary Batteries Introduction 155
                    Mercury Batteries   155
                    Magnesium-Carbon Batteries  155
                    Primary Silver-Zinc Batteries  155
         PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY MARKET
           DRIVERS AND TECHNOLOGY FACTORS   155
              Alkaline and Zinc-carbon Batteries Market Drivers and
                 Technology Factors  155
              Alkaline and   (Continued) 156
              Primary Lithium Battery Market Drivers and Technology
                 Factors  157
                    Lithium-carbon Monofluoride Batteries  157
                    Lithium-copper Oxyphosphate Batteries   158
                    Lithium-copper Oxide Batteries   158
                    Lithium-iodine Batteries  158
                    Lithium-iron Sulfide Batteries   159
                    Lithium-manganese Dioxide Batteries  159
                    Lithium-silver Vanadium Pentoxide Batteries   160
                    Lithium-sulfur Dioxide Batteries   160
                    Lithium-sulfuryl Chloride Batteries  161
                    Lithium-thionyl Chloride Batteries   161
              Zinc-air Battery Market Drivers and Technology Factors  161
              Other Primary Batteries Market Drivers and Technology
                 Factors  162
                    Mercury Batteries   162
                    Magnesium-carbon Batteries   162
                    Primary Silver-zinc Batteries  162
         PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY COMPANIES  162
TABLE 75 ALKALINE AND ZINC-CARBON PRIMARY PORTABLE
  PRODUCT BATTERY COMPANIES  163
TABLE 76 LITHIUM PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY
  COMPANIES 164
TABLE 77 ZINC-AIR PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY
  COMPANIES 164
   TABLE 78 MISCELLANEOUS PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT
     BATTERY COMPANIES   164
                 PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY FORECASTS   165
                     Primary Portable Product Battery Growth Drivers and
                        Inhibitors  165
   TABLE 79 PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY GROWTH
     DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS 165
                          Primary Portable Product Battery 5-Year Forecast  165
   TABLE 80 GLOBAL PRIMARY PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY
     MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016  166
   TABLE 80 (CONTINUED)   167
   TABLE 81 GLOBAL PRIMARY PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY
     MARKET BY MARKET ELEMENT, THROUGH 2016   168

CHAPTER SIX: PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGERS 
    PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER INTRODUCTION
      AND MARKET ELEMENTS  169
         INTERNAL PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER
            BACKGROUND  169
         EXTERNAL PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER
            BACKGROUND  170
    PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER MARKET DRIVERS
      AND TECHNOLOGY FACTORS 170
         BATTERY CHARGING TECHNIQUES   171
         BATTERY CHARGER COMPONENTS 172
               Battery Charger Rectifiers  172
               Battery Charger Transformers   173
               Battery Charger Regulators, Testers, and Meters   173
               Battery Charger Control   174
    PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER COMPANIES  174
   TABLE 82 TOP PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER
     COMPANIES 174
   TABLE 82 (CONTINUED)   175
        PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER FORECASTS  175
            PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER GROWTH
              DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS   175
   TABLE 83 PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER GROWTH
     DRIVERS AND INHIBITORS 176
                 PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER 5-YEAR
                   FORECAST   176
                     External Battery Chargers Basis 176
                     Internal Battery Chargers Basis  177
   TABLE 84 GLOBAL PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER
     MARKET BY MARKET ELEMENT, THROUGH 2016   178
   TABLE 85 GLOBAL PORTABLE-PRODUCT INTERNAL/OEM
     CHARGER MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2016  179
   TABLE 85 (CONTINUED)   180

CHAPTER SEVEN: PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY AND BATTERY
  CHARGER TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY   181
   TABLE 86 GLOBAL VALUE OF PORTABLE PRODUCT BATTERY AND
      BATTERY CHARGER MARKET, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)  181
   TABLE 87 GLOBAL VALUE OF PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY AND
      BATTERY CHARGER MARKET, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)  182
   FIGURE 2 GLOBAL VALUE OF PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERIES,
      2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS/%)  182
   FIGURE 2 (CONTINUED)  183
   FIGURE 3 GLOBAL VALUE OF PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY
      CHARGERS, 2006-2016 ($ MILLIONS/%)  184
   TABLE 88 GLOBAL UNIT SHIPMENTS FOR THE PORTABLE-
      PRODUCT BATTERY AND BATTERY CHARGER MARKET,
      THROUGH 2016 (MILLION UNITS)   185
   TABLE 89 SUMMARY OF GLOBAL UNIT SHIPMENTS FOR THE
      PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY AND BATTERY CHARGER
      MARKET, THROUGH 2016 (MILLION UNITS)   186
   TABLE 90 GLOBAL PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY AND BATTERY
      CHARGER MARKET, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS)  186
   TABLE 90 (CONTINUED)   187
   TABLE 90 (CONTINUED)   188
   TABLE 90 (CONTINUED)   189
   TABLE 91 GLOBAL UNIT SHIPMENTS FOR THE PORTABLE-
      PRODUCT BATTERY AND BATTERY CHARGER MARKET,
      THROUGH 2016 (MILLION UNITS)   189
   TABLE 91 (CONTINUED)   190
   TABLE 91 (CONTINUED)   191
   TABLE 92 GLOBAL PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY MARKET,
      THROUGH 2016  192

CHAPTER EIGHT: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 
    DRIVING FORCES OF THE INDUSTRY   193
   TABLE 93 DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS
     SUMMARY   193
   TABLE 93 (CONTINUED)   194
   TABLE 93 (CONTINUED)   195
   TABLE 93 (CONTINUED)   196
   TABLE 93 (CONTINUED)   197
   TABLE 93 (CONTINUED)   198
   TABLE 93 (CONTINUED)   199
TABLE 93 (CONTINUED)   200
         DRIVING FORCE 1: BATTERY TECHNICAL MATURITY
           CHANGES HOW BATTERIES ARE USED AND
           MARKETED  200
              Driving Force 1: (Continued)  201
         DRIVING FORCE 2: DEVELOPING NEW APPLICATIONS
           FOR PORTABLE POWER   202
         DRIVING FORCE 3: IMPROVING BATTERY CHARGER
           TECHNICAL MATURITY  202
         DRIVING FORCE 4: COMMERCIALIZATION PROCESS   203
         DRIVING FORCE 5: BATTERY SAFETY ISSUES   204
              Background  204
              Alternative Designs   205
              Recent Lithium-ion Patents that Address Battery Safety  206
                     Recent Lithium-ion   (Continued)  207
         DRIVING FORCE 6: MATERIAL SAFETY ISSUES   208
              Driving Force 6:  (Continued)   209
         DRIVING FORCE 7: PATENT DISPUTES  210
              Battery Patent Disputes 210
                     Battery Patent   (Continued)   211
              Portable Product Patent Disputes  212
                     Portable Product   (Continued)  213
         DRIVING FORCE 7: FUNCTIONALITY CONVERGENCE   214
     STRATEGIES FOR STAYING COMPETITIVE   215
     CONCENTRATION FACTORS   216
         PORTABLE PRODUCT CONCENTRATION FACTORS  216
              Multi-functional Handheld and Communication Product
                 Concentration Factors  216
              Entertainment Product Concentration Factors   217
              Computer Product Concentration Factors  217
              Navigation Product Concentration Factors  218
              Camera Concentration Factors   218
              Timepiece Concentration Factors   218
              Tools Concentration Factors 219
              Lighting Product Concentration Factors  220
              Toy and Novelty Concentration Factors 220
              Medical Product Concentration Factors   220
              Scientific Product Concentration Factors   221
              Military Product Concentration Factors   221
     MARKET SEGMENTATION   222
         PORTABLE PRODUCT MARKET SEGMENTATION  222
         PORTABLE BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION  222
         BATTERY CHARGER MARKET SEGMENTATION  223
     CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION   223
   TABLE 94 CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION BY SEGMENT  223
         PURCHASING INFLUENCES  224
             AVERAGE PRICE TRENDS   224
   TABLE 95 HISTORIC AND PREDICTED AVERAGE UNIT PRICES FOR
     PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2016 ($
     PER UNIT)   224
   TABLE 95 (CONTINUED)   225
                   PRICE SENSITIVITY  225
   TABLE 96 PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT
     PURCHASING INFLUENCES   225
   TABLE 96 (CONTINUED)   226
         COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS   226
             COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS (CONTINUED) 227

CHAPTER NINE: INTERNATIONAL MARKET  
   TABLE 97 GLOBAL PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED PRODUCT
     MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 (BILLIONS)  228
   TABLE 98 GLOBAL PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY MARKET BY
     REGION, THROUGH 2016 (BILLIONS)  229
   TABLE 99 GLOBAL PORTABLE-PRODUCT BATTERY CHARGER
     MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 (BILLIONS)  229
   TABLE 99 (CONTINUED)   230

CHAPTER TEN: COMPANY PROFILES   231
    3 (THREE)   231
    A123SYSTEMS   231
         A123SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)  232
         A123SYSTEMS (CONTINUED)  233
    ABSL POWER (AEA BATTERY SYSTEMS, AGM BATTERIES, LTD )   234
    ACCUTRONICS, LTD    235
    ACER   235
    ACTION BUSINESS SUPPLIERS, INC   236
    ADCON ELECTRONICS, INC   236
    ADVANCED BATTERY SYSTEMS, INC    237
    ADVANCED BATTERY SYSTEMS, LLC 238
    ADVANCED BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES, INC  (ABAT)  238
         ABAT (U S)   238
         ADVANCED BATTERY   (CONTINUED)   239
    ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES, INC  (POWER COMPONENTS)   240
    ALCAD, LTD   240
    ALCATEL-LUCENT   241
    ALURATEK  241
    ALL POWER BATTERY   241
    ALLEGRO MICROSYSTEMS, INC   241
    AMAZON   242
AMPLICOM USA  242
AMPRIUS  242
ANALOG DEVICES 243
APPLE COMPUTER, INC 243
     APPLE COMPUTER, INC  (CONTINUED)  244
     APPLE COMPUTER, INC  (CONTINUED)  245
APPLIED POWER, INC   246
APX TECHNOLOGIES, INC 246
ARCHOS  247
AROTECH CORP  (ELECTRIC FUEL BATTERY)  247
ARC ELECTRONICS 248
ASTROFLIGHT, INC 249
ATMEL CORPORATION   249
ASUSTEK COMPUTER, INC    250
AXION POWER INTERNATIONAL, INC  250
     AXION POWER INTERNATIONAL,   (CONTINUED)  251
BARNES & NOBLE  252
BATTERIES BATTERIES, INC   252
BATTERIES PLUS   253
BATTERY-BIZ  253
BATTERY CLINIC, INC    253
BATTERY SYSTEMS, INC    253
BATTERY TECHNOLOGY, INC   254
BENQ  254
BESCOR VIDEO   254
BOLDER TECHNOLOGIES (GP BATTERIES INTERNATIONAL)  254
BOSTON-POWER   255
BOSTON SCIENTIFIC CORP   256
BREN-TRONICS  256
BRIGHT STAR INDUSTRIES   257
BYD BATTERIES   257
CADEX  257
     CADEX (CONTINUED)   258
CANON 259
CASIO  259
C&D TECHNOLOGIES, INC   260
CELL-CON  260
CHINA BAK BATTERY, INC    261
     CHINA BAK BATTERY, INC  (CONTINUED)  262
     CHINA BAK BATTERY, INC  (CONTINUED)  263
CHINA SUN (DALIAN XINYANG HIGH-TECH DEVELOPMENT
   CO )  264
CHINA TMK   264
CISCO  265
   CITIZEN AMERICA   265
   CLARION  265
   CLIPLIGHT, INC    266
   COBASYS (SB LIMOTIVE CO , LTD )  266
   COBRA ELECTRONICS CORPORATION   267
   COMPAL ELECTRONICS   267
   COVALENT ASSOCIATES, INC   267
   CREATIVE LABS   267
   CYPRESS SEMICONDUCTOR CORP    268
   DAVIS INSTRUMENT MANUFACTURING CO   268
   DELL   268
   DELORME  269
   DINGOO DIGITAL   269
   DIVERSIFIED POWER INTERNATIONAL, LLC   269
   DORO  270
   DREMEL   270
   DURACELL INTERNATIONAL  270
   DYNAGE POWER & MAGNETICS   271
        DYNAGE POWER & MAGNETICS (CONTINUED)   272
   EAGLEPICHER CORP  (OM GROUP) 273
   ECTACO  274
   ELECTROVAYA (ELECTROFUEL)  274
   ENER1, INC  (ENERDEL)   275
   ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICES (ECD OVONICS) 276
        ENERGY CONVERSION   (CONTINUED)   277
TABLE 100 OVONICS BATTERY JOINT VENTURES, LICENSING
  AGREEMENTS, AND OTHER STRATEGIC ALLIANCES  278
        ENERGY CONVERSION   (CONTINUED)   279
        ENERGY CONVERSION   (CONTINUED)   280
   ENERGIZER   281
   ENFUCELL   282
   ENGINEERING DESIGN & SALES   283
   E-ONE MOLI ENERGY   283
        NEC  283
   ERGENICS  284
   ERICSSON  285
   EXIDE TECHNOLOGIES  286
   FARASIS ENERGY  286
   FLUKE ELECTRONICS  287
   FREEPLAY ENERGY, PLC   287
   FRIWO, INC    287
   FUJI FILM CO    288
   FUJITSU LTD (FUJITSU MICROELECTRONICS)  288
   GARMIN, LTD    288
GARRITY INDUSTRIES, INC   289
GE  289
GIGABYTE TECHNOLOGY  289
GLOBTEK, INC    290
GOODYEAR  290
GOOGLE   290
GP BATTERIES (GOLD PEAK INTERNATIONAL) 291
GREATBATCH, INC    292
HANNSPREE 292
HARDING ENERGY, INC   293
HASBRO, INC   293
HEWLWTT PACKARD CO    293
HITACHI MAXELL (MAXELL WORLDWIDE)  294
HLK & ASSOCIATES, INC    295
HM ELECTRONICS, INC    295
HONEYWELL BATTERIES  295
HONG KONG HIGHPOWER TECHNOLOGY   296
HOOVER CO   296
HTC   296
HYB BATTERY CO , LTD  (HUA-YUE-BAO BATTERY)  297
HUANYU BATTERY  297
HUAWEI   297
IGO  298
INSIGNIA 298
INDUSTRIAL BATTERY ENGINEERING  298
INDUSTRIES INTERNATIONAL, INC  (INDI)   299
INFINITE POWER SOLUTIONS  300
INTEL CORP    300
INTERMEC TECHNOLOGIES CORP    300
IOMEGA CORP  301
IOTA ENGINEERING  301
ISL PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL, LTD   301
ITAUTEC  302
JEROME INDUSTRIES CORP    302
JVC  302
KEYSTONE BATTERY CORP   302
KOBO  303
KODAK  303
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N V   304
LANIX 304
LEICA  304
LENOVO GROUP   305
LG  305
LIND ELECTRONIC DESIGN  305
LOWRANCE   306
LOTUS COMPUTER  306
MAGELLAN  307
MATTEL, INC   307
MAXELL CORPORATION   307
MAXIM INTEGRATED PRODUCTS, INC 308
MAXPOWER, INC    308
MEDION 309
MEDTRONIC, INC   309
MICROCHIP TECHNOLOGY, INC  309
MICRO POWER  310
MICROSOFT   310
MICRO-STAR INTERNATIONAL   311
MIDLAND RADIO CORPORATION   311
MINE SAFETY APPLIANCES CO    311
MITAC TECHNOLOGY CORP    311
MITSUBISHI INTERNATIONAL   312
MOTOROLA, INC   312
MULTIPLIER INDUSTRIES   313
NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORP   313
NEC CORP  (E-ONE MOLI ENERGY)  314
NEW ENERGY SYSTEMS GROUP  315
NEXCELL BATTERY   316
NEXERGY   317
NIKON  317
NINTENDO   318
NOKIA CELLULAR SYSTEMS   318
OMEGA ENGINEERING, INC    318
OLYMPUS   318
OPENPANDORA  319
PANASONIC   319
PANDIGITAL  320
PENTAX  320
PHILIPS GLOBAL 320
PIONEER  320
PLANET INTERACTIVE (CONNY)  321
POLYPLUS BATTERY COMPANY   321
POSITIVO INFORMATICA (GURPO POSITIVO)   322
POWERGENIX   322
POWER PAPER, LTD  323
POWER-SONIC CORP   323
POWERZINC ELECTRIC, INC   324
PROMARK ELECTRONICS  325
PURE ENERGY VISIONS, INC  (ENERGY VISIONS, INC )   326
     QUALLION LLC   326
     RENATA BATTERIES (SWATCH)  327
     RIM  327
     ROYAL APPLIANCE MANUFACTURING CO    328
     RSA SECURITY, INC   328
     SAFT  328
            SAFT (CONTINUED)  329
     SAGEMCOM   330
     SAKAR INTERNATIONAL, INC   330
     SAMSUNG  331
     SANYO ELECTRIC CO , LTD   332
     SEGA   333
     SEIKO HOLDINGS  334
     SETO HOLDINGS, INC   334
     SHARP ELECTRONICS CORP   334
     SIEMENS MEDICAL SYSTEMS   335
     SION POWER   335
     SOLICORE, INC   335
            SOLICORE, INC  (CONTINUED)   336
     SONIM  337
     SONY CORP 337
            SONY CORP  (CONTINUED)   338
            SONY CORP  (CONTINUED)   339
TABLE 101 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL BATTERY
  AND NEXELION   340
     SONY ERICSSON  341
     SPECTRUM BRANDS (RAYOVAC, BLACK & DECKER, VARTA
       CONSUMER BATTERIES)  341
     SPERRY INSTRUMENTS (A W  SPERRY)  342
     SOUTHWEST ELECTRONIC ENERGY CORP   342
     SUNBEAM CORP   343
     TAMURA CORP  OF AMERICA  343
     TANDY CORP  (RADIO SHACK)  343
     TEGAM, INC   344
     TEKTRONIX, INC    344
     TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, INC   344
     TIMEX CORP    344
     TOMTOM  345
     TORO CO  345
     TOSHIBA LTD    345
         TOSHIBA LTD  (CONTINUED)   346
TABLE 102 SCIB SPECIFICATIONS  347
     TRACER TECHNOLOGIES   347
     TRIMBLE NAVIGATION   348
         TRITRONICS, INC   348
         ULTRALIFE BATTERIES, INC  (MCDOWELL RESEARCH)  349
                ULTRALIFE BATTERIES, INC  (CONTINUED) 350
         UNIDEN  351
         UNIROSS BATTERIES CORP  351
         VALENCE TECHNOLOGY, INC  352
                VALENCE TECHNOLOGY, INC  (CONTINUED)  353
         VARTA AG MICROBATTERIES   354
         VENTRONICS  354
         VENTURE TECHNOLOGIES, INC  355
         VERISIGN, INC    355
         VICTOR TECHNOLOGY   355
         VIEWSONIC   355
         WHISTLER GROUP   356
         XANTREX TECHNOLOGY  356
         XENOTRONIX, INC   357
         YARDNEY (LITHION, ENER-TEK) 357
         YUASA BATTERY, INC  (YUASA BATTERY AMERICA INC ,
            YUASA-EXIDE)   357
         ZPOWER (ZINC MATRIX POWER)  358
         ZTE  359

APPENDIX I 
    GENERAL BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS  360
          VOLTAGE  360
          CAPACITY 360
          SHELF LIFE  360
          DRAIN  361
          SAFETY  361
                     Safety (Continued)   362
          ENERGY DENSITY   363
          POWER   363
          RECHARGE TIME   363
          PRIMARY BATTERY SIZE AND SHAPE  364
          CYCLE LIFE  364
          DISPOSAL FACTORS   365

APPENDIX II 
    MEDICAL DEVICE DEFINITIONS  366
          MEDICAL DEVICE DEFINITION IN THE U S    366
          MEDICAL DEVICE DEFINITION IN EUROPE   366
                    Medical Device Definition   (Continued)  367

APPENDIX III 

    COMPETING ENERGY STORAGE AND GENERATING SYSTEMS  368
            CAPACITIVE ENERGY STORAGE  368
TABLE 103 COMPARISON BETWEEN CAPACITIVE AND
  ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE   369
TABLE 104 COMPARISON OF CAPACITOR, ULTRACAPACITOR, AND
  BATTERY CHARACTERISTICS  370
            NUCLEAR BATTERIES  370
                Nuclear Batteries (Continued)  371
            FUEL CELLS   372
TABLE 105 PORTABLE FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS   373
TABLE 106 PORTABLE FUEL CELL MARKET FACTORS  373
                     Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells   374
                     Alkaline Fuel Cells  374
                     Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 375
                     Solid Oxide Fuel Cells   375
                     Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells  375
                     Air Cells   376
                     Zinc-air Cells  376
                     Aluminum-Air Cells  377-378

Date of Publication:
Jan 2, 2012
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Number of Pages:
183 Pages
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