Global Market for Graphene and 2-D Materials

The Global Market for Graphene and 2-D Materials in Electronics

Future Markets, Date of Publication: Apr 24, 2018, 221 Pages
US$775.00
FM4152

There is great interest in developing 2-D electronic devices to overcome the performance limitations of currently used materials. Graphene and other 2-D materials are key candidates for new and future electronics, including flexible and stretchable electronics, wearables, sensors and photonics. These materials possess a combination of high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and environmental stability.

Applications include:

  • Flexible e-paper
  • Flexible touchscreens
  • Wearable devices for physiological monitoring
  • Wearable medical devices
  • Flexible digital x-ray technology
  • Smart plastics
  • Electronic components on flexible substrates for distributed media
  • Sensors on flexible substrates
  • Wearable gas sensors
  • Wearable strain sensors
  • Wearable tactile sensors
  • Smart footwear
  • Smart labels
  • Printable sensors and electronics

Report contents include:

The market for graphene and other 2D materials in flexible and stretchable electronics, wearable sensors, conductive films, displays, industrial monitoring, wearable and mobile health monitoring, skin sensors and tattoos, conductive ink, transistors and integrated circuits, photonics, memory devices etc.

  • Market drivers and trends
  • Applications
  • Market challenges
  • Analysis of the material properties of graphene and other 2D materials relevant to electronics
  • 55 company profiles.

The Global Market for Graphene and 2-D Materials in Electronics
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.1 Market opportunity analysis 21

1.1 Market challenges rating system 23

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

2.1 The evolution of electronics 26

2.1.1 The wearables revolution 27

2.1.2 Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors 28

2.2 What are flexible and stretchable electronics? 29

2.2.1 From rigid to flexible and stretchable 29

2.2.2 Organic and printed electronics 31

2.2.3 New conductive materials 32

2.3 Growth in flexible and stetchable electronics market 35

2.3.1 Recent growth in printable, flexible and stretchable products 35

2.3.2 Future growth 35

2.3.3 Nanotechnology as a market driver 37

2.3.4 Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics 37

2.4 Two-dimensional (2D) materials 39

2.5 Graphene 40

3 OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE 

3.1 History 41

3.2 Forms of graphene 42

3.3 Properties 43

3.4 3D Graphene 45

3.5 Graphene Quantum Dots 45

3.5.1 Synthesis 47

3.5.2 Applications 47

3.5.2.1 Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics 47

3.5.2.2 Energy 47

3.5.2.3 Biomedicine and healthcare 48

3.5.2.4 Other 48

3.5.3 Producers 49

4 CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE

4.1 Comparative properties 52

4.2 Cost and production 53

4.3 Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids 54

4.4 Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene 55

5 OTHER 2-D MATERIALS

5.1 Beyond moore’s law 59

5.2 Batteries 59

5.3 PHOSPHORENE 60

5.3.1 Properties 60

5.3.1.1 Fabrication methods 62

5.3.1.2 Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices 62

5.3.2 Applications in electronics 62

5.3.2.1 Field effect transistors 63

5.3.2.2 Photodetectors 63

5.4 GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4) 63

5.4.1 Properties 63

5.4.2 Synthesis 64

5.4.3 C2N 64

5.4.4 Applications in electronics 65

5.5 GERMANENE 65

5.5.1 Properties 66

5.5.2 Applications in electronics 66

5.6 GRAPHDIYNE 66

5.6.1 Properties 67

5.6.2 Applications in electronics 67

5.7 GRAPHANE 68

5.7.1 Properties 68

5.7.2 Applications in electronics 68

5.8 HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE 69

5.8.1 Properties 69

5.8.2 Applications in electronics 70

5.8.2.1 Photodetectors 70

5.9 MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2) 70

5.9.1 Properties 71

5.9.2 Applications in electronics 72

5.10 RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2) 73

5.10.1 Properties 73

5.10.2 Applications in electronics 74

5.11 SILICENE 74

5.11.1 Properties 74

5.11.2 Applications in electronics 75

5.12 STANENE/TINENE 76

5.12.1 Properties 77

5.12.2 Applications in eectronics 77

5.13 TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE 77

5.13.1 Properties 78

5.13.2 Applications in electronics 78

5.14 ANTIMONENE 79

5.14.1 Properties 79

5.14.2 Applications 79

5.15 INDIUM SELENIDE 79

5.15.1 Properties 79

5.15.2 Applications in electronics 80

5.16 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS 80

6 GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS

6.1 Production directly from natural graphite ore 82

6.2 Alternative starting materials 82

6.3 Quality 83

6.4 Synthesis and production by types of graphene 84

6.4.1 Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) 84

6.4.2 Graphene nanoribbons 85

6.4.3 Large-area graphene films 86

6.4.4 Graphene oxide (GO) 86

7 GRAPHENE PRICING

7.1 Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing 89

7.2 Few-Layer Graphene pricing 90

7.3 Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing 91

7.4 Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing 92

7.5 Graphene Quantum Dots pricing 93

7.6 Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing 94

7.7 Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing 94

7.8 Mass production of lower grade graphene materials 95

7.9 High grade graphene difficult to mass produce 95

7.10 Bulk supply 96

7.11 Commoditisation 97

8 GRAPHENE ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS MARKET ANALYSIS

8.1 FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS 98

8.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 98

8.1.2 APPLICATIONS 100

8.1.2.1 Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics 104

8.1.2.2 Electronic paper 106

8.1.2.3 Wearable electronics 106

8.1.2.4 Wearable sensors 110

8.1.2.5 Industrial monitoring 116

8.1.2.6 Wearable and mobile health monitoring 116

8.1.2.7 Military 126

8.1.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 127

8.1.3.1 Wearable electronics 130

8.1.3.2 Transparent conductive electrodes 131

8.1.3.3 Wearable healthcare 132

8.1.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 134

8.1.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 137-150 (24 company profiles)

8.2 CONDUCTIVE INKS 151

8.2.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 151

8.2.2 APPLICATIONS 153

8.2.2.1 RFID 155

8.2.2.2 Smart labels 157

8.2.2.3 Smart clothing 158

8.2.2.4 Printable sensors 158

8.2.2.5 Printed batteries 159

8.2.2.6 Printable antennas 160

8.2.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 161

8.2.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 167

8.2.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 168-175 (14 company profiles)

8.3 TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 176

8.3.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 176

8.3.2 APPLICATIONS 177

8.3.2.1 Integrated circuits 177

8.3.2.2 Transistors 179

8.3.2.3 Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits 179

8.3.2.4 Graphene spintronics 180

8.3.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 182

8.3.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 184

8.3.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 186-192 (11 company profiles)

8.4 MEMORY DEVICES 192

8.4.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 192

8.4.2 APPLICATIONS 193

8.4.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 196

8.4.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 197

8.4.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 198-199 (3 company profiles)

8.5 PHOTONICS 200

8.5.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 200

8.5.2 APPLICATIONS 200

8.5.2.1 Si photonics versus graphene 201

8.5.2.2 Optical modulators 201

8.5.2.3 Photodetectors 202

8.5.2.4 Saturable absorbers 204

8.5.2.5 Plasmonics 204

8.5.2.6 Fiber lasers 204

8.5.3 MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 205

8.5.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 206

8.5.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 207-208 (3 company profiles)

9 REFERENCES

TABLES

Table 1: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2017 27

Table 2: Advanced materials for printable, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages 33

Table 3: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) 34

Table 4: Markets for wearable devices and applications 36

Table 5: Properties of graphene 44

Table 6: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs 46

Table 7: Graphene quantum dot producers 49

Table 8: Comparative properties of carbon materials 52

Table 9: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes 54

Table 10: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027 55

Table 11: 2D materials types 57

Table 12: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2 61

Table 13: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials 80

Table 14: Types of graphene and prices 88

Table 15: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer 90

Table 16: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer 90

Table 17: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer 91

Table 18: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer 92

Table 19: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer 93

Table 20: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer 94

Table 21: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer 95

Table 22: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 99

Table 23: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 102

Table 24: Comparison of ITO replacements 103

Table 25: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development 107

Table 26: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors 114

Table 27: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof 119

Table 28: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 127

Table 29: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays 128

Table 30: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $ 130

Table 31: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market 137

Table 32: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks 151

Table 33: Comparative properties of conductive inks 153

Table 34: Printable electronics products 154

Table 35: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics 157

Table 36: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof 159

Table 37: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks 162

Table 38: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks 164

Table 39: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types 167

Table 40: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks 167

Table 41: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 176

Table 42: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors 179

Table 43: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 181

Table 44: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 182

Table 45: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 183

Table 46: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market 185

Table 47: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices 192

Table 48: Market size for graphene in memory devices 196

Table 49: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market 197

Table 50: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics 200

Table 51: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators 202

Table 52: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics 205

Table 53: Market size for graphene in photonics 205

Table 54: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market 206

FIGURES

Figure 1: Evolution of electronics 27

Figure 2: Wove Band 30

Figure 3: Wearable graphene medical sensor 31

Figure 4: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics 32

Figure 5: Mimo Baby Monitor 38

Figure 6: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors 39

Figure 7: Graphene layer structure schematic 41

Figure 8: Graphite and graphene 42

Figure 9: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene 43

Figure 10: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4) 46

Figure 11: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots 48

Figure 12: Graphene quantum dots 49

Figure 13: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite 51

Figure 14: Schematic of 2-D materials 58

Figure 15: Black phosphorus structure 60

Figure 16: Black Phosphorus crystal 61

Figure 17: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation 63

Figure 18: Graphitic carbon nitride 64

Figure 19: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology 65

Figure 20: Schematic of germanene 65

Figure 21: Graphdiyne structure 67

Figure 22: Schematic of Graphane crystal 68

Figure 23: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride 69

Figure 24: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide 71

Figure 25: SEM image of MoS2 72

Figure 26: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor 73

Figure 27: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide 73

Figure 28: Silicene structure 74

Figure 29: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate 75

Figure 30: Silicene transistor 76

Figure 31: Crystal structure for stanene 76

Figure 32: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111) 77

Figure 33: Schematic of tungsten diselenide 78

Figure 34: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe) 80

Figure 35: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF 83

Figure 36: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium 86

Figure 37: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application 101

Figure 38: Flexible graphene touch screen 101

Figure 39: Galapad Settler smartphone 102

Figure 40: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode 103

Figure 41: Graphene electrochromic devices Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte 105

Figure 42: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film 106

Figure 43: Foldable graphene E-paper 106

Figure 44: Covestro wearables 108

Figure 45: Softceptor sensor 111

Figure 46: BeBop Media Arm Controller 112

Figure 47: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor 112

Figure 48: C2Sense flexible sensor 113

Figure 49: Wearable gas sensor 115

Figure 50: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves 116

Figure 51: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System 116

Figure 52: Connected human body 117

Figure 53: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor 118

Figure 54: Graphene-based E-skin patch 119

Figure 55: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs 121

Figure 56: Graphene medical patch 122

Figure 57: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer 123

Figure 58: Mimo baby monitor 123

Figure 59: Nanowire skin hydration patch 124

Figure 60: Wearable sweat sensor 124

Figure 61: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor 125

Figure 62: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system 126

Figure 63: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market 129

Figure 64: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $ 130

Figure 65: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $ 132

Figure 66: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $ 133

Figure 67: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $ 133

Figure 68: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates 135

Figure 69: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene 136

Figure 70: The GF1 Graphene Watch 151

Figure 71: BGT Materials graphene ink product 154

Figure 72: Printed graphene conductive ink 155

Figure 73: Flexible RFID tag 156

Figure 74: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink 158

Figure 75: Enfucell Printed Battery 160

Figure 76: Graphene printed antenna 161

Figure 77: Printed antennas for aircraft 161

Figure 78: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products 162

Figure 79: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market 164

Figure 80: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types 166

Figure 81: Graphene IC in wafer tester 178

Figure 82: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array 178

Figure 83: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right) 180

Figure 84: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits 183

Figure 85: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market 184

Figure 86: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate 194

Figure 87: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM) 195

Figure 88: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt 195

Figure 89: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip 196

Figure 90: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics 196

Figure 91: Hybrid graphene phototransistors 203

Figure 92: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors 203

Figure 93: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive 204

 

 

Date of Publication:
Apr 24, 2018
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
221 Pages