High temperature energy storage (HiTES) are both thermal and chemical in nature and are used in a range of applications including grid load levelling, integration of renewable energies and stationary storage, among others. The HiTES market comprises three primary battery chemistries including NaS (Sodium-Sulfur), NaMx (Sodium Metal Halide), and Molten Salt Storage. Superior attributes of HiTES technologies over other energy storage options include significantly low CAPEX and longer life cycle that exceeds 25 years.
This report analyzes the Global market for High Temperature Energy Storage (HiTES) in US$ Million by the following Battery Chemistries: Molten Salt, NaS (Sodium Sulfur), and NaMx (Sodium Metal Halide). Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2013 through 2020. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 36 companies including many key and niche players such as -
Abengoa Solar, S.A
ACCIONA Energy S.A
Archimede Solar Energy
Bertrams Heatec AG
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & PRODUCT DEFINITIONS Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations I-1 Disclaimers I-2 Data Interpretation & Reporting Level I-2 Quantitative Techniques & Analytics I-3 Product Definitions and Scope of Study I-3 II. A GLOBAL MARKET REPORT 1. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW II-1 High Temperature Energy Storage: Technology with Lower CAPEX and Longer Lifespan II-1 Table 1: High Temperature Energy Storage Technologies: Brief Details of Storage Type, Efficiency (%), Number of Cycles, Power Capacity, and Potential Duration II-2 Sodium Batteries (NaS and NaMx): Advantages and Disadvantages II-3 Competitive Landscape II-3 Global Outlook II-4 2. MARKET TRENDS, ISSUES & DRIVERS II-5 Rising Prominence of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Worldwide: A Strong Growth Driver for Molten Salt Energy Storage II-5 Table 2: Key Characteristics of Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Systems by TES Type II-6 Table 3: Global Solar-Related Energy Storage Market by Technology (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations for Batteries, Flywheel, and Thermal (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-7 Table 4: Global Solar-Related Battery Energy Storage Market by Type (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations for Flow Batteries, Lead-Acid, Lithium-ion, and Sodium Batteries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-7 Table 5: Global Solar Thermal Power Capacity by Country (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Capacity Installations for Algeria, India, Spain, and the United States (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-7 Growing Investments in CSP Projects Bodes Well for Molten Salt TES Systems II-8 Table 6: Top Ten Countries Worldwide with the Highest Concentrated Solar Power Plant Capacities: 2013 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-8 Table 7: Cumulative Capacity Installations of Concentrated Solar Power over the Period 2005-2013 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-9 Table 8: Major Commercial Purpose, Operational CSP Plants Worldwide (2013): Brief Details of Country, Name of Plant, Capacity (MW), and CSP Technology II-9 Andasol Solar Power Plant (Spain): The Leading Thermal Molten Salt Storage Project II-11 EU’s Desertec to Offer Major Boost to Concentrated Solar Thermal II-12 Immense Potential for Molten Salts as Heat Transfer Fluids in CSP Plants II-12 Major Research initiatives in Molten Salt Storage Technology II-13 Reduction of Overall System Costs II-13 Development of New Technology in CSP Plants II-13 New Salt Mixture with Enhanced Heat Storing Capabilities II-14 Probable Replacement Technologies for Molten Salt Storage in CSP Plants: A Cause for Concern? II-14 Phase Change Materials (PCM) Systems II-14 Sand II-15 Increasing Focus on Renewable Energy Sources (RES): Opportunities Galore for Molten Salt Storage II-15 Table 9: Targets for Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources Worldwide by Country II-17 Table 10: Percentage of Renewable Sources in Electricity Production Worldwide by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-19 Table 11: Global Investments (US$ Billion) in Renewable Energy by Source: 2013 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-20 Molten Salt Energy Storage Driven by the Steady Evolution of the Smart Grid Standard II-20 Table 12: Global Spend on Smart Grid Technologies by Region (2014, 2017 & 2020): Cumulative Spending (in US$ Billion) for Asia-Pacific (incl. China), Europe, Latin America, and North America (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-21 Table 13: NaS and Molten Salt TES Storage Compared with Other Grid Storage Technologies II-22 Dominance of Battery Technologies in Energy Storage Drives the NaS Batteries Market in the Near Term II-22 Table 14: Global NaS Batteries Market by Application (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations for Load Levelling; Emergency Power Supply Application and Load Levelling Combined; Momentary Power Failure Application and Load Levelling Combined; Natural Energy; and Other Applications (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-24 NaS Batteries: Maintaining High Temperature at All Times Lead to Higher Production Costs II-24 Table 15: Various Energy Storage Technologies Ranked on the Basis of Cost ($/KW) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-25 Table 16: Production Cost Breakdown (%) of a Typical NaS Battery Storage Plant (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-26 Higher Energy Capacities and Durable Chemistry Drive Demand for NaMx Batteries II-26 Table 17: NaMx Storage Type in Comparison with Other Storage Technologies in EV and Stationary Power Applications II-27 Surging Microgrid Installations to Drive Growth for NaMx Batteries II-27 Table 18: Global Energy Storage Capacity in Microgrids by Technology (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations for Advanced Lithium-ion, Advanced Lead-Acid, Advanced Flow Battery and Sodium Metal Halide (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-28 Expanding Electric Vehicles Infrastructure to Boost Prospects for NaMx Batteries II-28 Table 19: World Market for Electric Vehicles (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Unit Sales by Product Type (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-29 Favorable Trends in Energy Production and Consumption Strengthens Market Prospects II-29 Table 20: Global Electricity Consumption in TWh for Years 2000, 2015 & 2030 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-31 Table 21: Global Electricity Production by Country (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Electricity Production Volume for China, United States, India, Russia, Japan, Canada, Germany, Brazil, France, South Korea, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-31 Table 22: Global Electricity Consumption by Country (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Electricity Consumption Volume for China, United States, Japan, Russia, India, Germany, Canada, Brazil, South Korea, France, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-32 Table 23: Projected Global Demand for Primary Energy (Mtoe) and Electricity (MWh): 2015, 2020, 2025, 2030 & 2035 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-32 Table 24: Global Total Primary Energy Supply (Excluding Energy Stored in International Marine and Aviation Bunkers) in Units by Region (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Supply Volumes for OECD, China, Asia (excluding China), Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia, Africa, Middle East, and Non-OECD Americas (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-33 Table 25: Investments in New Power Plants by Geographic Region (2012): Percentage Breakdown for Coal, Natural Gas, Oil, Nuclear Power, and Renewable Energy (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-34 Table 26: Estimated Global Power Generation Infrastructure Requirement (in US$ Billion) for China, India, Latin America, and North America over the Period 2010-2030 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-35 3. HIGH TEMPERATURE ENERGY STORAGE: A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE II-36 The United States II-36 Renewable Energy and Energy Storage to Help Offset Escalating Electricity Cost II-36 Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage: A Vital Component of the Solar Power Industry II-37 Table 27: The US Grid Energy Storage Market by Technology (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations for Pumped Hydro Storage and Other Technologies (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-38 Table 28: The US Grid Energy Storage Market by Technology Other than Pumped Storage (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations for CAES, Flywheels, Ice Thermal Storage, Li-ion, NaS Batteries, Ni-Cad Batteries and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-38 Strong Growth for Solar Energy to Drive Demand for Molten Salt Storage Technology II-39 Table 29: Major Solar Projects in Development Phase in the US: Brief Details of Project Name, Capacity in MW, and Location (State) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-39 Favorable Policies Boosts Market Prospects for Solar Power Generation II-39 Table 30: Power Plant Capacity Additions (MW) in the US by Type of Power: 2013 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-40 NYC Utility’s Ambitious Plans for Energy Efficiency to Drive Market Growth II-40 Table 31: Incentives under ConEd’s Demand Management Program by Storage Technology II-41 Japan II-41 Increasing Focus on Renewable Energy Drives the HiTES Market II-41 Japanese Energy Market Overview II-41 Europe II-42 Key Growth Driving Factors in the European Energy Storage Market II-42 Grid Level Storage Gains Momentum in Western Europe II-43 Favorable Government Policies Benefit the German Energy Storage Market II-43 Asia-Pacific: A Potential Laden Market II-44 China: Booming Solar Industry Drives the Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage Market II-44 Outlook for Energy Storage Market in China II-45 India: Increasing Adoption of Renewable Energy Augurs Well for Market Expansion II-46 Technological Improvements for Realizing Cost Reductions: Need of the Hour II-46 South Africa II-47 Energy Storage to Deliver Reliable and Affordable Electricity in South Africa II-47 4. GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS MARKET: A MACRO PERSPECTIVE II-48 Energy Storage Technologies: Classification II-48 Table 32: Global Energy Storage Market by Technology (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Installed Capacity for Traditional Pumped Storage and Other Technologies (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-49 Table 33: Global Energy Storage Market by Technology Other than Pumped Storage (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Installed Capacity for Capacitor, Compressed Air, Flow Battery, Flywheel, Gravitational Storage, Lead Acid Battery, Li-ion, Molten Salt Energy and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-49 Table 34: Leading Energy Storage Technology Vendors Worldwide (2013): Percentage Market Share Breakdown Based on Capacity for Allis Chalmers, Alstom, CKD Blankso, Gridflex, Harbin, Hydrodynamics Group, Riverbank Power, Sichuan Dongfeng Electric, Voith and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-50 Table 35: Energy Storage Technologies: Key Features Comparison for PHS, CAES, Flywheel, NaS Battery, Li-ion Battery, Flow Battery, Supercapacitor, SMES, Molten Salt, Hydrogen, and SNG Technology II-52 Various Energy Storage Technologies: Key Advantages & Disadvantages II-52 Key Energy Storage Technologies & Applications for Electrical, Chemical, Electrochemical, Mechanical and Thermal Energy II-53 Investment in Energy Storage Projects Witness Steady Growth Worldwide II-53 Table 36: Number of Energy Storage Projects by Country: 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-54 Government Intervention Critical to Widespread Adoption of Energy Storage Technologies II-54 Domestic Targets for Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Select Regions/Countries II-55 New Projects & Government Mandates II-55 Incentives & Standards: Key to Promoting Energy Storage Technologies II-56 Microgrids to Drive Energy Storage in the Future II-56 Table 37: A Glance at Largest Power Blackouts/ Outages Worldwide II-57 Nanotechnology: The Future of Energy Storage? II-58 Nanotubular Bulk Material with Ultra-Low Density for Energy Storage Applications II-58 Research on for High Durability and Advanced Chemical Compositions II-59 Characteristics of Select Battery Technology Types II-59 5. PRODUCT OVERVIEW II-60 Energy Storage: Introduction II-60 High Temperature Energy Storage II-60 Sodium Sulfur (NaS) Battery II-60 Major Properties of NaS Batteries II-61 NaS batteries—Chemistry II-62 NaS Batteries—Construction and Operation II-62 Safety Concerns II-62 Major Applications of NaS Batteries II-63 Grid Energy Storage Support II-63 Space Applications II-63 Heavy Machinery and Transport II-63 Sodium Metal Halide (NaMx) Batteries (ZEBRA Batteries) II-63 NaMx Battery Components II-64 Operating Characteristics II-64 Applications II-65 Stationary Applications II-65 Major stationary applications II-66 Molten Salt Technology II-67 6. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY II-69 University of Evora and DLR of Germany Collaborate for Research in the Area of Molten Salt Storage for CSP Plants II-69 SolarReserve Secures Environmental Approval for Copiapo Solar Project with Molten Salt Storage Technology II-69 Acciona and Sener to Set up Kathu Solar Thermal Plant with Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage II-69 NGK Insulators NaS Electric Energy Storage System at Kashiwa- no-ha Smart City Becomes Operational II-69 SolarReserve Takes Over CSP Division of Aerojet Rocketdyne, Reinforces Leadership in Solar Thermal Energy II-69 NGK Insulators to Supply NAS Battery to Italian Transmission Grid II-70 NGK Insulator to Receive Government Subsidy for Research on NaS Battery II-70 Italian Enel Installs Molten Sat Receivers from Schott in its Molten Salt Solar Power Plant II-70 7. FOCUS ON SELECT GLOBAL PLAYERS II-71 Abengoa Solar, S.A. (Spain) II-71 ACCIONA Energy S.A. (Spain) II-71 Archimede Solar Energy II-71 Areva S.A.S (France) II-71 Bertrams Heatec AG (Switzerland) II-72 BrightSource Energy, Inc. (US) II-72 FZ SoNick (Switzerland) II-72 General Electric Company (US) II-73 Idhelio (France) II-73 NGK Insulators, Ltd. (Japan) II-73 Schott AG (Germany) II-74 SENER Group (Spain) II-74 Siemens AG (Germany) II-74 SolarReserve, LLC. (US) II-75 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (Japan) II-75 TSK Flagsol (Germany) II-75 8. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE II-76 Table 38: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for High Temperature Energy Storage (HiTES) by Technology - Molten Salt TES, NaS and NaMx Storage Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Revenues in US$ Millions for Years 2013 through 2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-76 Table 39: World 8-Year Perspective for High Temperature Energy Storage (HiTES) by Technology - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Revenues for Molten Salt TES, NaS and NaMx Markets for Years 2013, 2015 & 2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-77 III. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE Total Companies Profiled: 36 (including Divisions/Subsidiaries - 37) The United States (7) Japan (3) Europe (22) - France (2) - Germany (6) - Italy (3) - Spain (5) - Rest of Europe (6) Asia-Pacific (Excluding Japan) (4) Africa (1)