High Temperature Energy Storage

High Temperature Energy Storage (HiTES) - Global Strategic Business Report

Global Industry Analysts, Date of Publication: Oct 15, 2015, 153 Pages

High Temperature Energy Storage: HiTES Markets

High temperature energy storage (HiTES) are both thermal and chemical in nature and are used in a range of applications including grid load levelling, integration of renewable energies and stationary storage, among others. The HiTES market comprises three primary battery chemistries including NaS (Sodium-Sulfur), NaMx (Sodium Metal Halide), and Molten Salt Storage. Superior attributes of HiTES technologies over other energy storage options include significantly low CAPEX and longer life cycle that exceeds 25 years.

This report analyzes the Global market for High Temperature Energy Storage (HiTES) in US$ Million by the following Battery Chemistries: Molten Salt, NaS (Sodium Sulfur), and NaMx (Sodium Metal Halide). Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2013 through 2020. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 36 companies including many key and niche players such as -

Abengoa Solar, S.A
Archimede Solar Energy
Areva S.A.S
Bertrams Heatec AG



      Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations                       I-1
      Disclaimers                                                       I-2
      Data Interpretation & Reporting Level                             I-2
       Quantitative Techniques & Analytics                              I-3
      Product Definitions and Scope of Study                            I-3


  1. INDUSTRY OVERVIEW                                                  II-1
      High Temperature Energy Storage: Technology with Lower CAPEX
       and Longer Lifespan                                              II-1
       Table 1: High Temperature Energy Storage Technologies: Brief
       Details of Storage Type, Efficiency (%), Number of Cycles,
       Power Capacity, and Potential Duration                           II-2
       Sodium Batteries (NaS and NaMx): Advantages and Disadvantages    II-3
      Competitive Landscape                                             II-3
      Global Outlook                                                    II-4

  2. MARKET TRENDS, ISSUES & DRIVERS                                    II-5
      Rising Prominence of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Worldwide:
       A Strong Growth Driver for Molten Salt Energy Storage            II-5
       Table 2: Key Characteristics of Molten Salt Thermal Energy
        Storage Systems by TES Type                                     II-6
       Table 3: Global Solar-Related Energy Storage Market by
       Technology (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity
       Installations for Batteries, Flywheel, and Thermal (includes
       corresponding Graph/Chart)                                       II-7

       Table 4: Global Solar-Related Battery Energy Storage Market
       by Type (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity
       Installations for Flow Batteries, Lead-Acid, Lithium-ion, and
       Sodium Batteries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)            II-7

       Table 5: Global Solar Thermal Power Capacity by Country
       (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Capacity Installations for
       Algeria, India, Spain, and the United States (includes
       corresponding Graph/Chart)                                       II-7
       Growing Investments in CSP Projects Bodes Well for Molten
        Salt TES Systems                                                II-8
        Table 6: Top Ten Countries Worldwide with the Highest
        Concentrated Solar Power Plant Capacities: 2013 (includes
        corresponding Graph/Chart)                                      II-8

        Table 7: Cumulative Capacity Installations of Concentrated
        Solar Power over the Period 2005-2013 (includes
        corresponding Graph/Chart)                                      II-9

        Table 8: Major Commercial Purpose, Operational CSP Plants
        Worldwide (2013): Brief Details of Country, Name of Plant,
        Capacity (MW), and CSP Technology                               II-9
        Andasol Solar Power Plant (Spain): The Leading Thermal
         Molten Salt Storage Project                                    II-11
        EU’s Desertec to Offer Major Boost to Concentrated Solar
         Thermal                                                        II-12
       Immense Potential for Molten Salts as Heat Transfer Fluids in
        CSP Plants                                                      II-12
       Major Research initiatives in Molten Salt Storage Technology     II-13
        Reduction of Overall System Costs                               II-13
        Development of New Technology in CSP Plants                     II-13
        New Salt Mixture with Enhanced Heat Storing Capabilities        II-14
       Probable Replacement Technologies for Molten Salt Storage in
        CSP Plants: A Cause for Concern?                                II-14
        Phase Change Materials (PCM) Systems                            II-14
        Sand                                                            II-15
      Increasing Focus on Renewable Energy Sources (RES):
       Opportunities Galore for Molten Salt Storage                     II-15
       Table 9: Targets for Electricity Production from Renewable
        Energy Sources Worldwide by Country                             II-17
       Table 10: Percentage of Renewable Sources in Electricity
       Production Worldwide by Country (includes corresponding
       Graph/Chart)                                                     II-19

       Table 11: Global Investments (US$ Billion) in Renewable
       Energy by Source: 2013 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)      II-20
      Molten Salt Energy Storage Driven by the Steady Evolution of
       the Smart Grid Standard                                          II-20
       Table 12: Global Spend on Smart Grid Technologies by Region
       (2014, 2017 & 2020): Cumulative Spending (in US$ Billion) for
       Asia-Pacific (incl. China), Europe, Latin America, and North
       America (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)                     II-21

       Table 13: NaS and Molten Salt TES Storage Compared with Other
       Grid Storage Technologies                                        II-22
      Dominance of Battery Technologies in Energy Storage Drives the
       NaS Batteries Market in the Near Term                            II-22
       Table 14: Global NaS Batteries Market by Application (2014):
       Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations for Load
       Levelling; Emergency Power Supply Application and Load
       Levelling Combined; Momentary Power Failure Application and
       Load Levelling Combined; Natural Energy; and Other
       Applications (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)                II-24
       NaS Batteries: Maintaining High Temperature at All Times Lead
        to Higher Production Costs                                      II-24
        Table 15: Various Energy Storage Technologies Ranked on the
        Basis of Cost ($/KW) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)       II-25

        Table 16: Production Cost Breakdown (%) of a Typical NaS
        Battery Storage Plant (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)      II-26
      Higher Energy Capacities and Durable Chemistry Drive Demand
       for NaMx Batteries                                               II-26
       Table 17: NaMx Storage Type in Comparison with Other Storage
       Technologies in EV and Stationary Power Applications             II-27
       Surging Microgrid Installations to Drive Growth for NaMx
        Batteries                                                       II-27
        Table 18: Global Energy Storage Capacity in Microgrids by
        Technology (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity
        Installations for Advanced Lithium-ion, Advanced Lead-Acid,
        Advanced Flow Battery and Sodium Metal Halide (includes
        corresponding Graph/Chart)                                      II-28
       Expanding Electric Vehicles Infrastructure to Boost Prospects
        for NaMx Batteries                                              II-28
        Table 19: World Market for Electric Vehicles (2013):
        Percentage Breakdown of Unit Sales by Product Type (includes
        corresponding Graph/Chart)                                      II-29
      Favorable Trends in Energy Production and Consumption
       Strengthens Market Prospects                                     II-29
       Table 20: Global Electricity Consumption in TWh for Years
       2000, 2015 & 2030 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)           II-31

       Table 21: Global Electricity Production by Country (2013):
       Percentage Breakdown of Electricity Production Volume for
       China, United States, India, Russia, Japan, Canada, Germany,
       Brazil, France, South Korea, and Others (includes
       corresponding Graph/Chart)                                       II-31

       Table 22: Global Electricity Consumption by Country (2013):
       Percentage Breakdown of Electricity Consumption Volume for
       China, United States, Japan, Russia, India, Germany, Canada,
       Brazil, South Korea, France, and Others (includes
       corresponding Graph/Chart)                                       II-32

       Table 23: Projected Global Demand for Primary Energy (Mtoe)
       and Electricity (MWh): 2015, 2020, 2025, 2030 & 2035
       (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)                             II-32

       Table 24: Global Total Primary Energy Supply (Excluding
       Energy Stored in International Marine and Aviation Bunkers)
       in Units by Region (2013): Percentage Breakdown of Supply
       Volumes for OECD, China, Asia (excluding China), Non-OECD
       Europe and Eurasia, Africa, Middle East, and Non-OECD
       Americas (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)                    II-33

       Table 25: Investments in New Power Plants by Geographic
       Region (2012): Percentage Breakdown for Coal, Natural Gas,
       Oil, Nuclear Power, and Renewable Energy (includes
       corresponding Graph/Chart)                                       II-34

       Table 26: Estimated Global Power Generation Infrastructure
       Requirement (in US$ Billion) for China, India, Latin America,
       and North America over the Period 2010-2030 (includes
       corresponding Graph/Chart)                                       II-35

      The United States                                                 II-36
       Renewable Energy and Energy Storage to Help Offset Escalating
        Electricity Cost                                                II-36
       Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage: A Vital Component of the
        Solar Power Industry                                            II-37
        Table 27: The US Grid Energy Storage Market by Technology
        (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of Capacity Installations
        for Pumped Hydro Storage and Other Technologies (includes
        corresponding Graph/Chart)                                      II-38

        Table 28: The US Grid Energy Storage Market by Technology
        Other than Pumped Storage (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown
        of Capacity Installations for CAES, Flywheels, Ice Thermal
        Storage, Li-ion, NaS Batteries, Ni-Cad Batteries and Others
        (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)                            II-38
        Strong Growth for Solar Energy to Drive Demand for Molten
         Salt Storage Technology                                        II-39
         Table 29: Major Solar Projects in Development Phase in the
         US: Brief Details of Project Name, Capacity in MW, and
         Location (State) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)          II-39
       Favorable Policies Boosts Market Prospects for Solar Power
        Generation                                                      II-39
        Table 30: Power Plant Capacity Additions (MW) in the US by
        Type of Power: 2013 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)        II-40
       NYC Utility’s Ambitious Plans for Energy Efficiency to Drive
        Market Growth                                                   II-40
        Table 31: Incentives under ConEd’s Demand Management Program
         by Storage Technology                                          II-41
      Japan                                                             II-41
       Increasing Focus on Renewable Energy Drives the HiTES Market     II-41
       Japanese Energy Market Overview                                  II-41
      Europe                                                            II-42
       Key Growth Driving Factors in the European Energy Storage Market II-42
       Grid Level Storage Gains Momentum in Western Europe              II-43
       Favorable Government Policies Benefit the German Energy
        Storage Market                                                  II-43
      Asia-Pacific: A Potential Laden Market                            II-44
       China: Booming Solar Industry Drives the Molten Salt Thermal
        Energy Storage Market                                           II-44
        Outlook for Energy Storage Market in China                      II-45
       India: Increasing Adoption of Renewable Energy Augurs Well
        for Market Expansion                                            II-46
       Technological Improvements for Realizing Cost Reductions:
        Need of the Hour                                                II-46
      South Africa                                                      II-47
       Energy Storage to Deliver Reliable and Affordable Electricity
        in South Africa                                                 II-47

      Energy Storage Technologies: Classification                       II-48
       Table 32: Global Energy Storage Market by Technology (2014):
       Percentage Share Breakdown of Installed Capacity for
       Traditional Pumped Storage and Other Technologies (includes
       corresponding Graph/Chart)                                       II-49

       Table 33: Global Energy Storage Market by Technology Other
       than Pumped Storage (2014): Percentage Share Breakdown of
       Installed Capacity for Capacitor, Compressed Air, Flow
       Battery, Flywheel, Gravitational Storage, Lead Acid Battery,
       Li-ion, Molten Salt Energy and Others (includes corresponding
       Graph/Chart)                                                     II-49

       Table 34: Leading Energy Storage Technology Vendors Worldwide
       (2013): Percentage Market Share Breakdown Based on Capacity
       for Allis Chalmers, Alstom, CKD Blankso, Gridflex, Harbin,
       Hydrodynamics Group, Riverbank Power, Sichuan Dongfeng
       Electric, Voith and Others (includes corresponding
       Graph/Chart)                                                     II-50

       Table 35: Energy Storage Technologies: Key Features
       Comparison for PHS, CAES, Flywheel, NaS Battery, Li-ion
       Battery, Flow Battery, Supercapacitor, SMES, Molten Salt,
       Hydrogen, and SNG Technology                                     II-52
       Various Energy Storage Technologies: Key Advantages &
        Disadvantages                                                   II-52
       Key Energy Storage Technologies & Applications for
        Electrical, Chemical, Electrochemical, Mechanical and
         Thermal Energy                                                 II-53
      Investment in Energy Storage Projects Witness Steady Growth
       Worldwide                                                        II-53
       Table 36: Number of Energy Storage Projects by Country: 2014
       (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)                             II-54
      Government Intervention Critical to Widespread Adoption of
       Energy Storage Technologies                                      II-54
       Domestic Targets for Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Select
        Regions/Countries                                               II-55
       New Projects & Government Mandates                               II-55
       Incentives & Standards: Key to Promoting Energy Storage
        Technologies                                                    II-56
      Microgrids to Drive Energy Storage in the Future                  II-56
       Table 37: A Glance at Largest Power Blackouts/ Outages
       Worldwide                                                        II-57
      Nanotechnology: The Future of Energy Storage?                     II-58
       Nanotubular Bulk Material with Ultra-Low Density for Energy
        Storage Applications                                            II-58
      Research on for High Durability and Advanced Chemical
       Compositions                                                     II-59
       Characteristics of Select Battery Technology Types               II-59

  5. PRODUCT OVERVIEW                                                   II-60
      Energy Storage: Introduction                                      II-60
      High Temperature Energy Storage                                   II-60
       Sodium Sulfur (NaS) Battery                                      II-60
        Major Properties of NaS Batteries                               II-61
        NaS batteries—Chemistry                                         II-62
        NaS Batteries—Construction and Operation                        II-62
        Safety Concerns                                                 II-62
         Major Applications of NaS Batteries                            II-63
          Grid Energy Storage Support                                   II-63
          Space Applications                                            II-63
          Heavy Machinery and Transport                                 II-63
       Sodium Metal Halide (NaMx) Batteries (ZEBRA Batteries)           II-63
        NaMx Battery Components                                         II-64
        Operating Characteristics                                       II-64
        Applications                                                    II-65
         Stationary Applications                                        II-65
          Major stationary applications                                 II-66
       Molten Salt Technology                                           II-67

  6. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY                                           II-69
      University of Evora and DLR of Germany Collaborate for
       Research in the Area of Molten Salt Storage for CSP Plants       II-69
      SolarReserve Secures Environmental Approval for Copiapo Solar
       Project with Molten Salt Storage Technology                      II-69
      Acciona and Sener to Set up Kathu Solar Thermal Plant with
       Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage                               II-69
      NGK Insulators NaS Electric Energy Storage System at Kashiwa-
       no-ha Smart City Becomes Operational                             II-69
      SolarReserve Takes Over CSP Division of Aerojet Rocketdyne,
       Reinforces Leadership in Solar Thermal Energy                    II-69
      NGK Insulators to Supply NAS Battery to Italian Transmission Grid II-70
      NGK Insulator to Receive Government Subsidy for Research on
       NaS Battery                                                      II-70
      Italian Enel Installs Molten Sat Receivers from Schott in its
       Molten Salt Solar Power Plant                                    II-70

  7. FOCUS ON SELECT GLOBAL PLAYERS                                     II-71
      Abengoa Solar, S.A. (Spain)                                       II-71
      ACCIONA Energy S.A. (Spain)                                       II-71
      Archimede Solar Energy                                            II-71
      Areva S.A.S (France)                                              II-71
      Bertrams Heatec AG (Switzerland)                                  II-72
      BrightSource Energy, Inc. (US)                                    II-72
      FZ SoNick (Switzerland)                                           II-72
      General Electric Company (US)                                     II-73
      Idhelio (France)                                                  II-73
      NGK Insulators, Ltd. (Japan)                                      II-73
      Schott AG (Germany)                                               II-74
      SENER Group (Spain)                                               II-74
      Siemens AG (Germany)                                              II-74
      SolarReserve, LLC. (US)                                           II-75
      Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (Japan)                        II-75
      TSK Flagsol (Germany)                                             II-75

  8. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE                                          II-76
      Table 38: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for
      High Temperature Energy Storage (HiTES) by Technology - Molten
      Salt TES, NaS and NaMx Storage Markets Independently Analyzed
      with Annual Revenues in US$ Millions for Years 2013 through
      2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)                         II-76

      Table 39: World 8-Year Perspective for High Temperature Energy
      Storage (HiTES) by Technology - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar
      Revenues for Molten Salt TES, NaS and NaMx Markets for Years
      2013, 2015 & 2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart)            II-77


     Total Companies Profiled: 36 (including Divisions/Subsidiaries - 37)

     The United States (7)
     Japan (3)
     Europe (22)
     - France (2)
     - Germany (6)
     - Italy (3)
     - Spain (5)
     - Rest of Europe (6)
     Asia-Pacific (Excluding Japan) (4)
     Africa (1)
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