The interconnecting substrate can, and generally does, provide many functional attributes in addition to the basic electrical circuit. Organic printed boards account for more than 90% of the present types of interconnecting structures. The characteristics and capabilities of the global infrastructure have been able to meet the demand for circuit precision; however, cost expectations (while simultaneously satisfying design intents and time-to-market expectations) for high-volume production continues to be a major challenge. Additionally, the need to manage the competing, and sometimes contradictory, legal demands posed by various worldwide governments, has added a new set of requirements for organic materials.
The "Interconnect PCB-Organic - 2015 iNEMI Roadmap" looks at rigid, flexible and optoelectronic substrates, along with manufacturing equipment and processes, waveguide technology and more. It discusses some of the most critical issues with regard to such things as embedded components, computer buses, package conductor routing, and liquid coolants and heat sink requirements. It also identifies technology, research and development needs. This 60+ page chapter contains a wealth of information on organic printed boards. Fourteen tables and 30 figures provide a comprehensive view of the technology trends and challenges faced by this industry segment. This chapter complements the more detailed organic PCB roadmap developed by IPC.
Organic Interconnection PCBs consist of different size mounting substrates and include Modules, Portable Boards, Product Boards and Backplanes. The cost expectations from the Product Sector emulators may be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve in North America and Europe. In today's market, the so called standard FR-4 is gradually disappearing. The replacement is still an epoxy resin material, however, the resin fillers and inclusions of other resin makes for a variety of choices.
The drive toward lead free solders has changed the surface finish characteristics for the printed board. Some proponents of the issues suggest that recycling, or take-back techniques, are a more desirable solution for the environment as opposed to dumping lead-free and the restricted bromine free products into landfills.
Environmental organizations are pushing to eliminate certain bromines as a flame retardant in laminates while the move to lead-free solders means higher soldering temperatures that the printed board must withstand. Laminators world-wide have developed replacements in order to meet the high temperature requirements needed in the assembly processes. With all the changes in the substrate chemistry, the risk on long term reliability or substrate degradation continues to be of concern - especially in those product sectors such as aircraft and military hardware.
Passive and active components that are buried inside the printed circuit board are needed for both wiring density increases and for electrical performance reasons. There are several activities in the industry that are developing processes that address the simplification of these processes since sequential process steps usually incur additional costs. The CAD systems and the board fabrication infrastructure need work in order to have full implementation capability for using embedded components. Europe and Asia are making significant strides for using this technology.
As shortened product life cycles continue, there is ongoing discussion about application specific reliability requirements that could affect board reliability testing. There is also a certain amount of confusion as to who is responsible for the testing. With all the OEM outsourcing of board and assembly manufacturing, the decisions for Burn-in, HASS (Highly Accelerated Stress Screening) and HAST (Highly Accelerated Stress Testing), is an ongoing discussion between customers and suppliers. In several markets, the needs for these proofs of concept have been re-thought away from the old military or Telcordia requirements for a forty year life cycle.
Lastly, the Printed Board industry is no longer dominated by captive fabrication facilities. It is an industry dominated by many small independent board fabricators, with today’s model of the EMS (Electronics Manufacturing Services) giants acquiring printed board fabrication facilities. This brings a new challenge to the industry - the need to obtain a prototype from one supplier, and then going to another supplier for high volume fabrication for commercial products. Often the prototype and volume boards are not from the same company, or the same continent.
The 2015 Roadmap was developed by five Product Emulator Groups (PEGs) and 19 Technology Working Groups (TWGs). The TWGs responded to the inputs and requirements outlined by representatives of OEMs in the five Product Emulator Groups (PEGs). These groups included more than 500 direct participants from over 280 private corporations, consortia, government agencies, and universities in 20 countries.
The iNEMI Roadmap has become recognized as an important tool for defining the “state of the art” in the electronics industry as well as identifying emerging and disruptive technologies. It also includes keys to developing future iNEMI projects and setting industry R&D priorities over the next 10 years.
The complete report provides a full coverage of emerging and disruptive technologies across the electronics industry: Order 2015 iNEMI Roadmap today.