Role of Sub-1GHz Communications in M2M/IoT Development: Technologies, Markets, Applications

Role of Sub-1GHz Communications in M2M/IoT Development: Technologies, Markets, Applications

PracTel, Date of Publication: May 7, 2014
US$3,850.00
PT1254

This report provides the Sub-1GHz communications technologies and markets analysis and assessments; it concentrates on the recent developmental trends in connection with the IoT/M2M implementation. The report is useful for service providers, retail operators, vendors, network operators and managers, investors and end users seeking to gain a deeper understanding of opportunities and barriers on the discussed subjects.

IoT/M2M networking is rapidly becoming one of the largest parts of the global telecommunications infrastructure. Its realization needs to address specifics of connectivity between billions of smart objects, such as sensors, switches and similar. The industry is responding to new challenges by adapting the existing technologies and creating a new set of communications technologies specifically for IoT/M2M.

This report concentrates on properties and benefits of wireless communications in Sub-1GHz ISM bands. The report emphasizes that the industry is actively investigating opportunities of this portion of the spectrum to improve IoT/M2M communications characteristics.

The following Sub-1GHz technologies, related markets, standards and applications have been analyzed to emphasize their value for the IoT/M2M development:

Short range communications

- ZigBee/802.15.4
- Z-Wave
- EnOcean.

Long range communications

- Wave2M
- IEEE 802.15.4g
- IEEE 802.11af
- IEEE 802.11ah
- IEEE 802.22
- DASH7
- Weightless
- UNB (Ultra-narrow Band).

The major attractions of these Sub-1GHz technologies for IoT/M2M communications include:

-Extended range – they allow 5-10 times longer reaches over 2.4 GHz band transmissions. This is the result of smaller losses when signal is traveling through various obstacles; besides, the Sub-1GHz ISM bands are less crowded;
-Low power consumption;
-Support of multiple IoT/M2M applications that allow a relatively slow rate of transmission.

The report reflects the progress in communications technologies developments to allow efficiently utilize Sub-1GHz spectrum in IoT/M2M applications. It also depicts a complex picture of IoT/M2M communications technologies standardization with multiple incompatible solutions.

The industry shows all signs of interest in the utilization of Sub-1GHz ISM bands for IoT/M2M communications; there are great opportunities that have not been realized until recently.

The report is written for a wide audience of technical and managerial staff involved in the development of the IoT/M2M market.

 
Research Methodology


Considerable research was done using the Internet. Information from various Web sites was studied and analyzed; evaluation of publicly available marketing and technical publications was also conducted. Telephone conversations and interviews were held with industry analysts, technical experts and executives. In addition to these interviews and primary research, secondary sources were used to develop a more complete mosaic of the market landscape, including industry and trade publications, conferences and seminars.

The overriding objective throughout the work has been to provide valid and relevant information. This has led to a continual review and update of the information content.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Role of Sub-1GHz Communications in M2M/IoT Development: Technologies, Markets, Applications


1.0 Introduction

1.1 General 9
1.2 Specifics 9
1.3 Scope 10
1.4 Research Methodology 11
1.5 Target Audience 11

2.0 Goals: Development of M2M Communications and IoT

2.1 M2M Communications Developments 12
2.1.1 Special Needs 12
2.1.1.1 Spectrum 14
2.1.1.2 Summary 15
2.1.2 Standardization – Industry Activities 16
2.1.2.1 IEEE 17
2.1.2.2 ETSI 17
2.1.2.3 ITU 19
2.1.2.4 oneM2M Alliance 20
2.1.2.4.1 Service Layer Architecture 21
2.1.2.4.2 Benefits 22
2.1.2.5 Telefonica multi-Operators Alliance 23
2.1.2.6 M2M Alliance 23
2.1.2.7 Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) 24
2.1.2.8 GSC MSTF 25
2.1.2.9 WAVE2M 25
2.1.2.9.1 Aim 25
2.1.2.10 Summary 25
2.1.3 Market 26
2.1.3.1 Statistics 26
2.1.3.2 Estimate 27
2.1.4 Industry: Innovations 30
Arqiva/Sensus 30
CSR (acquired by Qualcomm in 2014) 31
Kore Telematics 32
Link Labs 33
M2M Spectrum Networks 34
On-Ramp 35
SigFox/Telit 36
Telensa/Plextek 37
2.2 IoT 38
2.2.1 M2M and IoT 39
2.2.2 Open Interconnect Consortium 40
2.2.3 Industrial Internet Consortium 40
2.2.4 IoT Platforms 41
2.2.5 IoT and ITU 41
2.2.6 IoT Forum 42
2.2.7 IEEE and IoT – P2413 43
2.2.8 ISO/IEC 43
2.2.8.1 Layered Structure 43
2.2.9 IoT – Market 44
2.2.10 Applications 45

3.0 Benefits of Sub-1GHz Transmission

3.1 ITU Designation 47
3.2 Sub-1GHz Transmission Benefits and Limitations 48
3.3 Generations 50
3.3.1 Details 51

4.0 Sub-1GHz Transmission: Support of Long-reach IoT/M2M Communications

4.1 IEEE-802.15.4g-Smart Utility Networks 53
4.1.1 General 53
4.1.2 Need 54
4.1.3 Value 55
4.1.4 Overview - PHY 55
4.1.5 Regions 55
4.1.5.1 Frequencies Allocations 55
4.1.6 Details 56
4.1.6.1 Requirements: Major Characteristics 56
4.1.6.2 Considerations 57
4.1.6.3 Network Specifics 57
4.1.6.4 PHY/MAC Modifications 58
4.1.7 Market 60
4.1.8 Summary 62
4.1.9 Wi-SUN 62
4.1.10 Manufacturers – Examples 63
Accent 63
Analog Devices 64
Elster 65
TI 65
4.2 IEEE 802.22 66
4.2.1 General 66
4.2.2 Status – 802.22 66
4.2.3 Developments 67
4.2.4 IEEE 802.22-2011 Overview 68
4.2.4.1 Major Characteristics 68
4.2.5 IEEE 802.22 Details 69
4.2.5.1 Physical Layer – Major Characteristics 69
4.2.5.2 MAC Layer 70
4.2.6 Cognitive Functions 71
4.2.7 IEEE 802.22 – Marketing Considerations for SG 72
4.2.8 Major Applications 74
4.2.9 Usage Models 74
4.2.10 Benefits 75
4.2.11 Summary 75
4.2.12 Group 77
4.2.12.1 IEEE 802.22.1 77
4.2.12.2 IEEE 802.22.2 77
4.2.12.3 IEEE 802.22a-2014 77
4.2.12.4 IEEE P802.22b 78
4.3 IEEE 802.11ah 78
4.3.1 Goal 79
4.3.2 Status 79
4.3.3 Expectations 79
4.3.4 Details 80
4.4 IEEE 802.11af – White-Fi 82
4.4.1 Status 82
4.4.2 Objectives 82
4.4.3 Regulations 83
4.4.4 Difference 83
4.4.5 Specifics 84
4.4.6 Devices 85
4.4.7 Use of Database 85
4.4.8 PHY and MAC 85
4.4.9 Building Blocks 86
4.4.10 Prototyping: 802.22 and 802.11af 87
4.4.11 Use Cases 87
4.4.12 Benefits 87
4.4.13 Industry 88
4.4.14 Marketing Considerations 88
4.5 DASH7 Technology and Applications 89
4.5.1 General 89
4.5.2 DASH7 and M2M/IoT 89
4.5.3 ISO/IEC 18000-7:2014 89
4.5.4 DASH7 Alliance 90
4.5.4.1 DASH7 Mode 2 90
4.5.4.1.1 Physical Layer 91
4.5.4.1.2 Data Layer 92
4.5.4.1.3 Network Layer 92
4.5.4.1.4 Upper Layers 92
4.5.4.2 DRAFT 0.2 Release - Specification 92
4.5.4.3 General Characteristics - Summary 93
4.5.4.4 433 MHz Transmission Specifics 94
4.5.4.5 Green Technology 94
4.5.4.6 Applications 95
4.5.4.7 Industry 95
Agaidi 96
Evigia 97
GuardRFID 98
Hi-G-Tek 98
Identec Solutions 99
Savi 100
TI 100
4.6 Ultra Narrow Band 101
4.6.1 Origin 101
4.6.2 Tasks 102
4.6.3 Major Features 102
4.7 Wavenis – WAVE2M 104
4.7.1 Coronis (acquired by Elster Group in 2007) 105
4.7.2 Progress - Alliance 106
4.7.3 WAVE2M: Major Features and Benefits 106
4.7.4 Summary 108
4.8 Weightless Communications 108
4.8.1 SIG 108
4.8.2 Weightless and Competition 109
4.8.3 Weightless-N Specifics 110

5.0 Sub-1GHz Transmission: Support of Short-reach IoT/M2M Communications

5.1 ZigBee – IEEE 802.15.4 111
5.1.1 General 111
5.1.2 Sub-1GHz ZigBee: Specifics 111
5.1.3 ZigBee Acceptance 112
5.1.4 Major Features: ZigBee/802.15.4 113
5.1.5 Device Types 114
5.1.6 Protocol Stack 116
5.1.6.1 Physical and MAC Layers – IEEE802.15.4 116
5.1.6.2 Upper Layers 118
5.1.7 Security 119
5.1.8 Power Consumption 120
5.1.9 ZigBee Technology Benefits and Limitations 121
5.1.10 Standardization Process 122
5.1.10.1 Ratifications 122
5.1.10.1.1 ZigBee 3.0 122
5.1.10.2 Alliance 122
5.1.11 Applications Specifics – Application Profiles 123
5.1.11.1 “Green” ZigBee 125
5.1.11.2 ZigBee Telecom Services 125
5.1.11.3 Building Automation 127
5.1.11.4 Smart Energy Profile 127
5.1.11.4.1 Features 128
5.1.11.4.2 Smart Energy Profile v.2.0 129
5.1.11.5 ZigBee IP 129
5.1.11.6 ZigBee Network Devices - IP Gateway 130
5.1.12 Market 131
5.1.12.1 Expectations-Technology Stack 131
5.1.12.2 Segments 133
5.1.12.3 Forecast 134
5.1.13 Sub-1GHz ZigBee: Certification 136
5.1.14 Industry 137
Adaptive Networks Solutions (RF Sub-GHz) 137
Amber (RF Modules, Sub-1GHz) 138
Atmel (Chipsets) 139
Helicomm (Modules, Sub-1GHz) 140
Freescale (Chipsets, Sub-1GHz) 141
Microchip Technologies (Modules, Sub-1GHz) 142
Renesas (Platforms, AMR, Sub-1GHz) 143
Silicon Laboratories (Chipsets, Modules, Sub-1GHz) 144
Synapse (Modules, Sub-1GHz, Protocol) 145
TI (Chipsets, Sub-1GHz) 147
ZMDI (Sub-1GHz) 148
5.2 EnOcean: General 149
5.2.1 The Company 149
5.2.2 EnOcean Alliance 150
5.2.3 Standard 151
5.2.3.1 Features 151
5.2.3.2 Drivers 152
5.2.4 Technology Details 153
5.2.4.1 Framework 153
5.2.4.2 Generations 154
5.2.5 Profiles 156
5.2.6 Benefits 157
5.2.7 Market Estimate 157
5.2.8 Industry 159
BSC Magnum 159
Beckhoff 161
Echoflex 161
Illumra 162
Leviton 163
Thermokon 163
5.3 General: Z-Wave 164
5.3.1 Z-Wave Alliance 165
5.3.2 Benefits 165
5.3.3 Details 166
5.3.3.1 General 166
5.3.3.2 Characteristics 167
5.3.3.3 G.9959 168
5.3.4 Advanced Energy Control Framework 169
5.3.5 Z-Wave and Smart Metering 169
5.3.6 Selected Vendors 170
Aeon Labs-Aeotec 170
Mi Casa Verde (Vera) 171
NorthQ 172
Sigma Designs 173
There 175
5.3.7 Market Estimate: Z-Wave Products for Smart Houses 176
5.3.7.1 Model 176
5.3.7.2 Results 176

6.0 Conclusions

Appendix I: IEEE 802.15.4g Characteristics 180



Figure 1: Regions: ISM Band 11
Figure 2: IoT Environment 14
Figure 3: Key M2M Elements 18
Figure 4: ETSI Activity 19
Figure 5: Use Cases 20
Figure 6: ETSI-High-level Architecture 20
Figure 7: M2M Layers 23
Figure 8: Summary – Standardization 27
Figure 9: M2M Major Applications 28
Figure 10: Projections: M2M Traffic Growth (PB/Month) 29
Figure 11: TAM: M2M Communications Revenue ($B) 30
Figure 12: TAM: Mobile Operators Revenue in M2M ($B) 30
Figure 13: TAM: M2M Communications – Satellite Segment ($B) 31
Figure 14: IoT – Layered Structure 44
Figure 15: Projections: IoT Technologies and Applications Market ($T) 45
Figure 16: Projections – Number of Smart Devices in Households – Global (Bil. Units) 46
Figure 17: M2M/IoT Spectrum of Applications 47
Figure 18: Range 49
Figure 19: Power Consumption 50
Figure 20: Rates 50
Figure 21: Global Sub-1GHz Frequencies 52
Figure 22: Sub-1GHz Transmission Characteristics 52
Figure 23: ZigBee-2.4 GHz vs. 900 MHz 53
Figure 24: Properties Comparison 53
Figure 25: SUN Connectivity 55
Figure 26: TAM: Global SG Networking ($B) 62
Figure 27: TAM: Global SG SUN (IEEE802.15.4g) ($B) 63
Figure 28: TAM: U.S. 802.22-related Revenue ($B) 74
Figure 29: IEEE 802.22 Usage Scenarios 75
Figure 30: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22 76
Figure 31: 802.11ah Frequency Plan 81
Figure 32: TAM- Global 802.11af Equipment Sales ($B) 88
Figure 33: Mode 1 and Mode 2 - Comparison 91
Figure 34: DASH7 Mode 2 - PHY 91
Figure 35: Transmission Ranges 93
Figure 36: Features Comparison 94
Figure 37: Comparison 104
Figure 38: Characteristics 114
Figure 39: ZigBee/802.15.4 Protocol Stack 116
Figure 40: ZigBee/802.15.4 Characteristics 117
Figure 41: Profiles 123
Figure 42: ZigBee IP Gateway Protocol Stack 130
Figure 43: Technology Stack 131
Figure 44: TAM: Global Sales - ZigBee Modules ($B) 134
Figure 45: TAM: Global ZigBee Modules Sales (Bil. Units) 134
Figure 46: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2014) 135
Figure 47: ZigBee Market Segmentation (2018) 135
Figure 48: Functionalities 150
Figure 49: Major Features 150
Figure 50: Energy Consumption Requirements 151
Figure 51: TAM: EnOcean Industry Equipment Sales ($B) 157
Figure 52: TAM: EnOcean Industry Equipment Sales (Mil. Units) 158
Figure 54: TAM: U.S. Small SH Z-Wave IC ($M) 176
Figure 55: TAM: U.S. Large SH Z-Wave IC ($B) 177


Date of Publication:
May 7, 2014
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