Based on data from 83 manufacturers supplying electronics to the military and aerospace market, this study covers the current use of lead-free materials and components in mil/aero electronics. It examines how manufacturers required to use lead in their assemblies are coping with the trend toward lead-free electronics, including the use of reballing. It assesses the added costs of producing leaded assemblies and identifies the tipping points that are expected to move military electronics toward lead free. The report includes historical data on the ratio of lead-free to tin/lead solder consumption and a 10-year forecast.
The study examines the use of reballing lead-free assemblies in order to meet high-reliability requirements, and it estimates the average costs that this workaround typically adds to board production. It also estimates the price differential of scarce components and identifies the tipping points at which the industry can be expected to go fully lead free. These tipping points and other indicators are the basis for a 10-year forecast of the ratio of tin/lead to lead-free solder consumption, both worldwide and in North America.
In the end, the growing cost differential between leaded materials and components will force a shift to lead-free electronics in high-reliability applications. The study provides a look at how manufacturers are coping with these problems today and how this trend will affect the industry in the future.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Use of Lead-Free Components and Assemblies by Military Suppliers
How Tin/Lead Users are Coping with the Trend
Planned Investments in Lead-Free
Regional Outlook on Shift to Lead-Free Electronics
Forecasts of Lead-Free to Tin/Lead Ratio
Appendix: Verbatim Comments from Survey Respondents
Scarce Leaded Materials and Components