Metals Pastes for Solar Cells: Technology Research Trend and Market Forecast

Metals Pastes for Solar Cells: Technology Research Trend and Market Forecast

SNE, Date of Publication: Jan 16, 2013, 231 Pages
US$2,990.00
SNE-R096PV

Cell Production

As the sharp price drop across the PV value chain began in 2011 and continued in 2012, many companies are facing deterioration in profitability.  Many Chinese companies, which occupy a majority of global PV module production, are also shut down their factories or moving out of the industry.

The Europe's economic crisis that occurred in 2011 is expected to continue in 2013 as well, as each government is expected to postpone implementation of support programs to reduce fiscal deficits In this sense, it is expected that each country will accelerate subsidy cuts, and, as a result, the growth rate of PV module production will remain only at 19.6% in 2013.

After 2014 when the PV oversupply is relieved, the market will hit a growth trend again to 20%.


Metal Paste Market


Ag pastes, which are used in small quantities but available at a considerably higher price than that of aluminum, are forming a large market in terms of revenues Based on LME prices as of November, 2012, aluminum is available at US$ 1,943/ton, and Ag at US$ 1,064/kg which is a similar level from the same period a year ago.

In the case of back-side Al paste, the price is continuously decreasing from $40/kg early this year to $25/kg, and -33% decline is expected compared to last year.

In the case of Ag pastes, negative growth is expected, considering the downward trend in LME prices, which have the greatest influence on selling prices As raw material prices are expected to decrease beginning next year, after reaching the peak in 2012, the solar cell paste market will remain below $X billion.

DuPont

Of 27 patents filed by Du Pont, U.S patents account for the largest portion with 11 cases (41%), followed by Korean patents with 5 cases (18%), Japanese and European patents with 4 cases (15%) respectively, and PCT applications with 3 cases (11%)

In all counties, there has been an upward trend in patent applications since the mid-2000s; especially the patents filed within the recent 5 years take up the majority of the overall patent filings This is because metal (silver) paste technologies become more and more important with the current trend toward the adoption of photovoltaics as a countermeasure of global warmi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section I: Metal Paste Market Analysis

1     Top 5 Solar Cell Manufacturers ­ Metal Paste Supplier Analysis

            1.1  Suntech  9
                          1.1.1  Cell Production 9
                          1.1.2  Front Ag paste  10
                          1.1.3  Back Ag paste   12
                          1.1.4  Back Al paste  14
            1.2  Yingli Solar  17
                          1.2.1  Cell Production 17
                          1.2.2  Front Ag paste  18
                          1.2.3  Back Ag paste   20
                          1.2.4  Back Al paste  22
            1.3  JA Solar  24
                          1.3.1  Cell Production 24
                          1.3.2  Front Ag paste  25
                          1.3.3  Back Ag paste   27
                          1.3.4  Back Al paste  29
            1.4  China Sunergy  31
                          1.4.1  Cell Production 31
                          1.4.2  Front Ag paste  32
                          1.4.3  Back Ag paste   34
                          1.4.4  Back Al paste  36
            1.5  Jinko Solar  38
                          1.5.1  Cell Production 38
                          1.5.2  Front Ag paste  39
                          1.5.3  Back Ag paste   41
                          1.5.4  Back Al paste  43

2     Metal Paste Market Forecast (2008~2015F) 

            2.1  Global Market Forecast (2008~2015F)  45
                          2.1.1  Cell Production 45
                          2.1.2  Metal Paste Demand  46
                          2.1.3  Metal Paste Market   48
            2.2  Korea Market Forecast (2008~2015F)   50
                          2.2.1  Cell Production 50
                          2.2.2  Metal Paste Demand  51
                          2.2.3  Metal Paste Revenue   52
            2.3  China Market Forecast (2008~2015F)   53
                          2.3.1  Cell Production 53
                          2.3.2  Metal Paste Demand  54
                          2.3.3  Metal Paste Revenue   55
            2.4  Taiwan Market Forecast (2008~2015F) 56
                          2.4.1  Cell Production 56
                          2.4.2  Metal Paste Demand  57
                          2.4.3  Metal Paste Revenue   58
            2.5  Japan Market Forecast (2008~2015F)   59
                          2.5.1  Cell Production 59
                          2.5.2  Metal Paste Demand  60
                          2.5.3  Metal Paste Revenue   61
            2.6  Germany Market Forecast (2008~2015F)  62
                          2.6.1  Cell Production 62
                          2.6.2  Metal Paste Demand  63
                          2.6.3  Metal Paste Revenue   64
            2.7  U.S.A Market Forecast (2008~2015F) 65
                          2.7.1  Cell Production 65
                          2.7.2  Metal Paste Demand  66
                          2.7.3  Metal Paste Revenue   67
            2.8  Italy Market Forecast (2008~2015F)  68
                          2.8.1  Cell Production 68
                          2.8.2  Metal Paste Demand  69
                          2.8.3  Metal Paste Revenue   70
            2.9  Spain Market Forecast (2008~2015F) 71
                          2.9.1  Cell Production 71
                          2.9.2  Metal Paste Demand  72
                          2.9.3  Metal Paste Revenue   73


Section II : Technology Trend Analysis


1     Patent trends of major companies

            1.1  DuPont  75
            1.2  Ferro   79
            1.3  Heraeus  85

2     Trend in new product launches (2010~2012)

            2.1  Trend in new product launches by type (2010~2012)  89
            2.2  Trend in new product launches -high efficiency type (2010~2012)  91
            2.3  Trend in new product launches ­ conventional type (2010~2012)  92
            2.4  Trend in product launches of major companies (2011~2012)  92

3    Electrode material technology for next generation c-Si solar cell

           3.1  Trend of improvement of existing pastes 94
                         3.1.1  Realization of High Aspect Ratio  94
                         3.1.2  Pb-Free Glass Frit and other Frit issues   98
           3.2  Cost effective electrode material technology 100
                         3.2.1  Efforts for Ag consumption reduction  100
                         3.2.2  Development of partial Ag-substituting paste   101
                         3.2.3  Technology for complete Ag substitution  102
           3.3  Development of electrode material for new process  104
                         3.3.1  Inkjet printing Ag paste   104
                         3.3.2  Ag paste for Gravure Off-set Printing 106
                         3.3.3  Hot melt type Ag paste for screen printing 107
           3.4  Development of high efficiency electrode material   108
                         3.4.1  Paste for Shallow Emitter   108
                         3.4.2  Metal Wrap Through (MWT) Paste  111
                         3.4.3 Back Contact Cell Paste   112
                         3.4.4 Selective emitterand fine line printing   113
                         3.4.5 Other issue 114

4    Trends in solar sell electrode materials

           4.1  Ag Front Electrodes   116
           4.2  Ag Rear Electrodes   119
           4.3  Al rear electrodes   120
           4.4  Plating electrode   122

5    Major business trend

           5.1  FERRO Elelctronic Material 123
           5.2  Giga Solar Materials   127
           5.3  Heraeus  129
           5.4  Rutech  131
           5.5  DuPont  133
           5.6  Monocrystal  139
           5.7  Noritake  141
           5.8  Namics  144
           5.9  AgPRO 146
           5.10  Daejoo Electronic Materials   147
           5.11  Dongjin Semichem   149
           5.12  Cheil Industries  151
           5.13  Advanced Nano Products  152
           5.14  Other Korean companies   155


Section III : Metal Paste Price trend   156


1     LME & Metal Paste Price of Ag and Al (2008~2012) 
             1.1  Ag Price (2008.01.01~2012.11.30)   156
             1.2  Al Price (2008.01.01~2012.11.30)  157
             1.3  Metal Paste Price Forecast (2008~2015F)  158

2     Material Cost Analysis
 
             2.1  Front Ag Paste  160
             2.2  Back Ag Paste  163
             2.3  Back Al Paste   165

Appendix : Basic Theory of Metal Paste

1     Metal Paste Overview
             1.1  Metal Paste Definition  167
                          1.1.1  What is Metal Paste?  167
                          1.1.2  Paste design   168
             1.2  Basic requirement for paste 170
                          1.2.1  Required property of paste   170
                          1.2.2  Paste material composition  172
                                    1.2.2.1 Metal powder  172
                                    1.2.2.2 Glass frit 174
                                    1.2.2.3 Organic materials such as binders and solvents  174
                                    1.2.2.4 Surfactant   176
                          1.2.3  Paste manufacturing technology  178
                                    1.2.3.1 Conductive filler dispersion process   181
                                    1.2.3.2 Filler dispersion process   182
                          1.2.4  Paste management   184
                                    1.2.4.1 Paste agitation, defoamation  184
                                    1.2.4.2 Paste filtering  185
             1.3  Paste printing quality  186
                          1.3.1  Paste surface tension (cohesion of material itself)   186
                          1.3.2  Substrate surface free energy  186
             1.4  Calcination temperature and paste performance   188
             1.5  Solar Cell Metal Paste  190
                          1.5.1  Properties required for Solar cell Metal Paste ­ Front electrode 195
                          1.5.2  Properties required for solar cell metal pastes ­ Rear electrode   196

2     Metal Paste Property 

             2.1  Thixotropic property  198
                          2.1.1  Thixotropic property and hydrogen bond  198
                          2.1.2  Thixotropic property and particle size and shape   198
                                 2.1.3  Thixotropic property and printing quality   200
                                 2.1.4  Viscosity recovery time and printing quality  200
                                 2.1.5  Thixotropy measurement  202
                   2.2  Rheology property  204
                                 2.2.1  Newtonian Flow  204
                                 2.2.2  Pseudoplastic Flow   205
                                 2.2.3  Dilatant Flow   205
                                 2.2.4  Plastic Flow   205
                   2.3  Dynamic Viscoelasticity  207
                                 2.3.1  Definition of Dynamic Viscoelasticity  207
                                 2.3.2  Evaluation through Dynamic viscoelasticity measurement  209

3    Metal Paste Printing Method

                   3.1  Screen Printing   212
                                 3.1.1  Screen Printing Overview   212
                                 3.1.2  Screen Printing condition  214
                                 3.1.3  Problems and solutions in Screen printing process 215
                   3.2  Inkjet printing  217
                                 3.2.1  Inkjet printing overview   217
                                 3.2.2  Characteristic of Inkjet Ink  218
                                 3.2.3  Characteristic of Inkjet Head  219
                                 3.2.4  Characteristic of Inkjet process  220
                   3.3  Gravure printing  223
                                 3.3.1  Gravure printing overview   223
                                 3.3.2  Gravure Printing Engraving  224
                                 3.3.3  Conductive paste for Gravure printing  226
                   3.4  Gravure off-set  227
                                 3.4.1  Gravure off-set printing   227
                                 3.4.2  Variables of Gravure off-set printing process 229
                   3.5  Reverse Gravure Offset  230
                                 3.5.1  Reverse Gravure Offset Printing Overview  230
                                 3.5.2  Electrode pates using photolithography   231

Date of Publication:
Jan 16, 2013
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
231 Pages
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