High Impact Nanomaterials: Nanocellulose, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and 2-D Nanomaterials

The Global Market for High Impact Nanomaterials: Nanocellulose, Carbon Nanotubes and 2D Nanomaterials

Future Markets, Date of Publication: Nov 3, 2015, 1045 Pages
US$3,100.00
FM5075

Nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes, graphene and other 2D materials will make a huge impact in the next 10-15 years.

Many industries including electronics, automotive, aerospace, telecommunications and healthcare are exploring the use of high impact nanomaterials such as nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes and graphene. Other 2-D nanomaterials such as silicene, graphyne, graphdiyne, grapahane and molybdenum disulfide are also under intense study. CNTs and graphene are the strongest, lightest and most conductive fibers known to man, with a performance-per-weight greater than any other material.

All of these materials possess outstanding properties and represent potentially the most economically viable and lucrative nanomaterials through to the middle of the next decade and beyond. Most are relatively new nanomaterials but are coming onto the market fast and will find widespread applications over the next decade in sectors such as composites, electronics, filtration, medical and life sciences, oil and energy, automotive, aerospace, coatings, military, consumer goods and sensors.

This 1045 page report outlines the global scenario for these materials including:

  • Industry growth and prospects
  • Industry structure
  • Historical data
  • Market forecasts
  • Key market drivers and restraints
  • Technology roadmaps and application timelines
  • Over 250 tables and figures
  • Producers, research centre and application developer profiles


TABLE OF CONTENTS

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 65
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY-Carbon nanomaterials 67
CARBON NANOTUBES 67
Exceptional properties 68
Products and applications 70
Threat from the graphene market 72
Production 72
Multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) production 73
Single-walled nanotube (SWNT) production 74
Global demand for carbon nanotubes 77
Current products 79
Future products 80
Market drivers and trends 81
Electronics 81
Market and production challenges 83
Safety issues 83
Dispersion 84
Synthesis and supply quality 85
Cost 85
Competition from other materials 86
GRAPHENE 86
Remarkable properties 88
Global funding 89
Products and applications 90
Production 93
Market drivers and trends 95
Production exceeds demand 95
Market revenues remain small but are growing 96
Scalability and cost 97
Applications hitting the market 99
Wait and see? 100
Asia and US lead the race 101
Competition from other materials 101
Market and technical challenges 102
Supply quality 102
Cost 103
Product integration 103
Regulation and standards 104
INTRODUCTION 106
Properties of nanomaterials 106
Categorization 107
CARBON NANOTUBES 109
Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) 109
Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) 111
Single-chirality 113
Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) 115
Few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) 116
Carbon Nanohorns (CNHs) 116
Fullerenes 117
Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) 118
Properties 119
Applications of carbon nanotubes 120
High volume applications 121
Low volume applications 121
Novel applications 121
GRAPHENE 122
3D Graphene 126
Graphene Quantum Dots 126
Properties 126
CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE 128
Cost and production 131
Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids 133
OTHER 2D MATERIALS 133
Phosphorene 135
Properties 135
Applications 136
Recent research news 137
Silicene 138
Properties 139
Applications 139
Recent research news 140
Molybdenum disulfide 140
Properties 141
Applications 142
Recent research news 144
Hexagonal boron nitride 145
Properties 146
Applications 147
Recent research news 147
Germanene 148
Properties 149
Applications 149
Recent research news 149
Graphdiyne 150
Properties 151
Applications 151
Graphane 153
Properties 154
Applications 154
Stanene/tinene 155
Properties 156
Applications 156
Tungsten diselenide 156
Properties 157
Applications 158
Rhenium disulphide 158
Properties 159
Applications 159
CARBON NANOTUBE SYNTHESIS 162
Arc discharge synthesis 164
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 165
Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) 166
High-pressure carbon monoxide synthesis 167
High Pressure CO (HiPco) 167
CoMoCAT 168
Flame synthesis 169
Laser ablation synthesis 170
Silane solution method 171
GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS 172
Large area graphene films 172
Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets 173
Production methods 174
Quality 177
Industrial scale production 177
Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) 178
Graphene Nanoribbons 179
Large-area graphene films 179
Graphene oxide flakes (GO) 180
Pros and cons of graphene production methods 181
Recent synthesis methods 188
Synthesis methods by company 193
CARBON NANOTUBES MARKET STRUCTURE 196
GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE 200
REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 205
Standards 205
Environmental, health and safety regulation 206
Europe 206
United States 206
Asia 207
Workplace exposure 208
PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS 210
Carbon nanotubes 210
Graphene 211
Fabrication processes 212
Academia 212
Regional leaders 213
TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL 218
END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS 221
Carbon nanotubes production volumes 2010-2025 222
Regional demand for carbon nanotubes 224
Japan 226
China 227
Main carbon nanotubes producers 228
SWNT production 229
OCSiAl 229
FGV Cambridge Nanosystems 230
Zeon Corporation 230
Price of carbon nanotubes-MWNTs, SWNTs and FWNTs 230
Graphene production volumes 2010-2025 231
Carbon nanotubes industry news 2013-2015 234
JANUARY 2013 234
AUGUST 2013 234
NOVEMBER 2013 235
DECEMBER 2013 235
JANUARY 2014 236
FEBRUARY 2014 237
MARCH 2014 238
APRIL 2014 239
MAY 2014 240
JULY 2014 241
SEPTEMBER 2014 241
JANUARY 2015 243
FEBRUARY 2015 244
MARCH 2015 245
APRIL 2015 245
MAY 2015 246
JUNE 2015 246
JULY 2015 247
Graphene industry news 2013-2015 247
JANUARY 2013 247
FEBRUARY 2013 248
APRIL 2013 249
MAY 2013 249
JUNE 2013 250
JULY 2013 250
AUGUST 2013 251
SEPTEMBER 2013 252
OCTOBER 2013 253
NOVEMBER 2013 253
DECEMBER 2013 254
JANUARY 2014 256
FEBRUARY 2014 257
MARCH 2014 259
APRIL 2014 261
MAY 2014 263
JUNE 2014 263
JULY 2014 265
AUGUST 2014 266
SEPTEMBER 2014 267
AUGUST 2014 268
SEPTEMBER 2014 269
OCTOBER 2014 269
NOVEMBER 2014 270
DECEMBER 2014 272
JANUARY 2015 274
FEBRUARY 2015 275
MARCH 2015 276
APRIL 2015 277
MAY 2015 278
JUNE 2015 279
JULY 2015 280
AUGUST 2015 282
Carbon nanotubes producers and production capacities 284
Graphene producers and production capacities 285
ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS 292
TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS 295
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 295
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 298
Properties and applications 299
CHALLENGES 305
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 308
CONDUCTIVE INKS 313
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 313
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 315
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 316
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 321
TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 323
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 324
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 325
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 326
CHALLENGES 329
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 332
MEMORY DEVICES 335
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 335
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 337
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 338
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 344
PHOTONICS 345
Optical modulators 346
Photodetectors 346
Plasmonics 348
Challenges 349
POLYMER COMPOSITES 349
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 351
Improved performance 351
Multi-functionality 352
Growth in wind energy market 352
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 353
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 354
Carbon nanotubes 354
Graphene 359
CHALLENGES 362
Carbon nanotubes 362
Graphene 363
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 363
Carbon nanotubes 363
Graphene 368
AEROSPACE 370
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 370
Safety 370
Reduced fuel consumption and costs 370
Increased durability 370
Multi-functionality 371
Need for new de-icing solutions 372
Weight reduction 372
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 372
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 374
Composites 375
Coatings 377
Sensors 379
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 380
Carbon nanotubes 380
Graphene 383
AUTOMOTIVE 385
MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS 386
Environmental 386
Safety 386
Lightweighting 386
Cost 387
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 387
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 389
Composites 390
Lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles 391
Coatings 392
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 393
Carbon nanotubes 393
Graphene 394
BIOMEDICAL & HEALTHCARE 395
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 396
Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy 396
Shortcomings of chemotherapies 397
Biocompatibility of medical implants 398
Anti-biotic resistance 398
Growth in advanced woundcare market 399
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 399
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 400
Cancer therapy 403
Medical implants and devices 409
Wound dressings 410
Biosensors 410
Medical imaging 412
Tissue engineering 412
Dental 413
CHALLENGES 413
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 414
Carbon nanotubes 414
Graphene 416
COATINGS 418
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 418
Sustainability and regulation 418
Cost of corrosion 419
Improved hygiene 420
Cost of weather-related damage 421
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 422
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 424
Anti-static coatings 427
Anti-corrosion coatings 428
Anti-microbial 430
Anti-icing 431
Barrier coatings 431
Heat protection 432
Anti-fouling 433
Wear-resistance 435
Smart windows 435
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 436
Carbon nanotubes 436
Graphene 437
FILTRATION AND SEPARATION 439
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 439
Need for improved membrane technology 439
Water shortage and population growth 440
Contamination 441
Cost 441
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 441
PROPERTIES AND APPLICTIONS 442
Carbon nanotubes 443
Graphene 445
CHALLENGES 448
Uniform pore size and distribution 449
Reducing pore size for improved desalination 449
Difficulties of CNT growth 450
Cost 450
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 450
Carbon nanotubes 450
Graphene 452
ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION 453
BATTERIES 455
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 455
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 457
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 459
CHALLENGES 463
SUPERCAPACITORS 464
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 464
Problems with activated carbon 465
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 465
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 467
Challenges 469
PHOTOVOLTAICS 470
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 470
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 471
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 471
FUEL CELLS 476
MARKET DRIVERS 476
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 476
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 477
Challenges 479
LED LIGHTING AND UVC 479
Market drivers and trends 480
Market size 480
Properties and applications 481
OIL AND GAS 481
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 481
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 482
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 483
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 484
Carbon nanotubes 484
Graphene 487
SENSORS 493
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 494
Increased power and performance with reduced cost 494
Enhanced sensitivity 494
Replacing silver electrodes 495
Growth in the home diagnostics and point of care market 495
Improved thermal stability 495
Environmental conditions 496
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 496
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 497
Infrared (IR) sensors 499
Electrochemical and gas sensors 499
Pressure sensors 501
Biosensors 502
Optical sensors 505
Humidity sensors 505
Acoustic sensors 505
Wireless sensors 505
Challenges 506
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 506
Carbon nanotubes 506
Graphene 508
3D PRINTING 509
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 510
Improved materials at lower cost 510
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 510
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 511
CHALLENGES 512
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 513
Carbon nanotubes 513
Graphene 513
ADHESIVES 514
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 514
Thermal management in electronics 514
Environmental sustainability 515
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 515
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 516
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 516
Carbon nanotubes 516
Graphene 517
LUBRICANTS 517
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 517
Cost effective alternatives 518
Need for higher-performing lubricants for fuel efficiency 518
Environmental concerns 518
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 518
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 520
CHALLENGES 520
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 520
Carbon nanotubes 520
Graphene 521
TEXTILES 522
MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 522
Growth in the wearable electronics market 522
PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS 522
Wearable electronics 524
Superhydrophobic coatings 525
Conductive coatings 526
Flame retardant textiles 526
MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 527
PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 527
CARBON NANOTUBES PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 529-690
GRAPHENE PRODUCERS AND PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 692-831
Producers and types of graphene produced matrix 692
Graphene industrial collaborations 694

THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANOCELLULOSE 833
Applications 833
Production 834
Market drivers 836
Sustainable materials 836
Improved products 837
Unique properties 837
Recent improvements in production and product integration 838
Market and technical challenges 838
INTRODUCTION 845
Properties of nanomaterials 845
Categorization 847
Nanocellulose 849
Types 849
NanoFibrillar Cellulose (NFC) 851
NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC) 852
Bacterial Cellulose (BCC) 853
Properties 859
Advantages 860
Manufacture of nanocellulose 861
Production methods 862
Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods 865
Cellulose nanocrystals production methods 866
NANOCELLULOSE MARKET STRUCTURE 867
SWOT ANALYSIS FOR NANOCELLULOSE 871
REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 873
Standards 873
International Standards Organization (ISO) 873
American National Standards 874
CSA Group 874
Toxicity 874
Regulation 878
REGIONAL INITIATIVES AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING 880
NANOCELLULOSE APPLICATIONS 881
High volume applications 881
Low volume applications 881
Novel applications 882
NANOCELLULOSE TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL (TRL) 883
NANOCELLULOSE END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS 887
Production volumes 2010-2025 887
Global production facilities 890
Producers, production capacity and types of nanocellulose produced 892
Nanocellulose patents & publications 894
POLYMER COMPOSITES 899
Market drivers and trends 899
Improved performance 900
Multi-functionality 901
Growth in wind energy market 901
Properties 902
Bio-packaging 903
Market drivers and trends 903
Market size 905
Applications 906
Aerospace 908
Market drivers and trends 908
Market size 909
Applications 910
Automotive 910
Market drivers and trends 910
Market size 911
Applications 912
Construction & building 912
Market drivers and trends 912
Market size 913
Applications 913
Commercial activity 914
PAPER & BOARD 917
Market drivers and trends 917
Market size 918
Properties and applications 919
Paper packaging 921
Paper coatings 922
Anti-microbials 922
Commercial activity 923
MEDICAL & HEALTHCARE 924
Market drivers and trends 925
Improved drug delivery for cancer therapy 925
Shortcomings of chemotherapies 926
Biocompatibility of medical implants 926
Anti-biotic resistance 927
Growth in advanced woundcare market 927
Properties and applications 928
Drug delivery 928
Medical implants 929
Tissue engineering 930
Wound dressings 930
Laterial flow immunosay labels 931
Commercial activity 931
COATINGS AND PAINTS 934
Market drivers and trends 934
Sustainability and regulation 934
Market size 934
Properties and applications 936
Paints and varnishes 936
Wood coatings 937
Anti-counterfeiting films 938
Superhydrophobic coatings 938
Commercial activity 940
AEROGELS 941
Market drivers and trends 941
Energy efficiency 941
Demand for environmentally-friendly, lightweight materials 941
Market size 942
Properties and applications 942
Thermal insulation 943
Medical 943
Shape memory 943
Commercial activity 944
OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION 945
Market drivers and trends 945
Environmental and regulatory 945
Cost 946
Increased demands of drilling environments 946
Market size 947
Properties and applications 947
Oil and fracking drilling fluids 948
Extraction 949
Commercial activity 949
FILTRATION 950
Market drivers and trends 950
Need for improved membrane technology 950
Water shortage and population growth 950
Contamination 951
Market size 952
Properties and applications 952
Water filtration 953
Air filtration 954
Virus filtration 954
Commercial activity 955
RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS 956
Properties and applications 956
Food 957
Pharmaceuticals 958
Cosmetics 958
Commercial activity 959
PRINTABLE ELECTRONICS 960
Market drivers and trends 960
Cost 960
Increased demand for printed electronics 961
Limitations of existing conductive inks 961
Market size 961
Properties and applications 962
Flexible energy storage 964
Conductive inks 965
Commercial activity 965
NANOCELLULOSE COMPANY PROFILES 966-1013

MAIN NANOCELLULOSE RESEARCH CENTRES 1015
Aalto University 1016
AIST 1016
Clark-Atlanta University 1017
Colorado School of Mines 1017
EMPA 1018
Georgia Institute of Technology 1019
Grenoble INP-Pagora 1019
McMaster University 1020
North Carolina State University 1020
Oregon State University 1021
Paper and Fiber Research Institute (PFI) 1022
Pennsylvania State University 1022
Purdue University 1023
SUNY-ESF 1023
Technical University of Lodz 1024
University of Exeter 1025
University of Fribourg 1025
Uppsala University 1026
Universidade do Minho 1027
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (Boku University) 1027
University of Toronto 1028

TABLES
Table 1: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials 72
Table 2: Carbon nanotubes target markets-Applications, stage of commercialization and potential addressable market size 73
Table 3: Annual production capacity of MWNT and SWNT producers 76
Table 4: SWNT producers production capacities 2014 79
Table 5: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 80
Table 6: Graphene target markets-Applications, stage of commercialization and potential addressable market size 94
Table 7: Graphene producers annual production capacities 96
Table 8: Global production of graphene, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 98
Table 9: Graphene types and cost per kg 101
Table 10: Categorization of nanomaterials 110
Table 11: Comparison between single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes 117
Table 12: Properties of carbon nanotubes 122
Table 13: Properties of graphene 130
Table 14: Comparative properties of carbon materials 133
Table 15: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes 135
Table 16: Recent phosphorene research news 140
Table 17: Recent silicene research news 143
Table 18: Recent Molybdenum disulfide research news 148
Table 19: Recent hexagonal boron nitride research news 150
Table 20: Recent germanane research news 152
Table 21: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials 163
Table 22: SWNT synthesis methods 166
Table 23: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market 175
Table 24: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market 176
Table 25: Main production methods for graphene 177
Table 26: Graphene synthesis methods, by company 196
Table 27: Carbon nanotubes market structure 199
Table 28: Graphene market structure 203
Table 29: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014 216
Table 30: Leading graphene patentees 217
Table 31: Industrial graphene patents in 2014 218
Table 32: Market penetration and volume estimates (tons) for carbon nanotubes and graphene in key applications 224
Table 33: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 226
Table 34: Current carbon nanotubes prices 234
Table 35: Global production of graphene, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 235
Table 36: Annual production capacity of main carbon nanotubes producers 287
Table 37: Graphene producers and production capacity (Current and projected), prices and target markets 289
Table 38: Carbon nanotubes in the electronics and photonics market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 295
Table 39: Graphene in the electronics and photonics market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 297
Table 40: Comparison of ITO replacements 299
Table 41: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in transparent conductive films and displays 312
Table 42: Graphene product and application developers in transparent conductive films 314
Table 43: Comparative properties of conductive inks 317
Table 44: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in conductive inks 324
Table 45: Graphene product and application developers in conductive inks 325
Table 46: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits 335
Table 47: Graphene product and application developers in transistors and integrated circuits 336
Table 48: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in memory devices 347
Table 49: Graphene product and application developers in memory devices 348
Table 50: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators 349
Table 51: Dispersion of graphene in polymers 355
Table 52: Carbon nanotubes in the polymer composites market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 356
Table 53: Graphene in the polymer composites market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 356
Table 54: Addressable market size for carbon nanomaterials composites 357
Table 55: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites 363
Table 56: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the composites industry 367
Table 57: Graphene product and application developers in the composites industry 371
Table 58: Carbon nanotubes in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 376
Table 59: Graphene in the aerospace market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 377
Table 60: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the aerospace industry 383
Table 61: Graphene product and application developers in the aerospace industry 386
Table 62: Carbon nanotubes in the automotive market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 391
Table 63: Graphene in the automotive market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 391
Table 64: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the automotive industry 396
Table 65: Graphene product and application developers in the automotive industry 398
Table 66: Carbon nanotubes in the biomedical and healthcare markets-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 402
Table 67: Graphene in the biomedical and healthcare markets-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 403
Table 68: CNTs in life sciences and biomedicine 404
Table 69: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare 405
Table 70: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the medical and healthcare industry 417
Table 71: Graphene product and application developers in the medical and healthcare industry 420
Table 72: Carbon nanotubes in the coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 426
Table 73: Graphene in the coatings market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 427
Table 74: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings 429
Table 75: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the coatings industry 439
Table 76: Graphene product and application developers in the coatings industry 440
Table 77: Carbon nanotubes in the filtration market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 445
Table 78: Comparison of CNT membranes with other membrane technologies 447
Table 79: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the filtration industry 453
Table 80: Graphene product and application developers in the filtration industry 455
Table 81: Carbon nanotubes in the energy market-Applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 456
Table 82: Graphene in the energy market-Applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 457
Table 83: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries 472
Table 84: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the energy industry 487
Table 85: Graphene product and application developers in the energy industry 491
Table 86: Carbon nanotubes in the sensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 496
Table 87: Graphene in the sensors market-applications, stage of commercialization and addressable market size 496
Table 88: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors 501
Table 89: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor 507
Table 90: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the sensors industry 509
Table 91: Graphene product and application developers in the sensors industry 511
Table 92: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing 515
Table 93: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the 3D printing industry 516
Table 94: Graphene product and application developers in the 3D printing industry 516
Table 95: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives 518
Table 96: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the adhesives industry 519
Table 97: Graphene product and application developers in the adhesives industry 520
Table 98: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants 522
Table 99: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the lubricants industry 523
Table 100: Graphene product and application developers in the lubricants industry 524
Table 101: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials 526
Table 102: Carbon nanotubes product and application developers in the textiles industry 530
Table 103: Graphene producers and types produced 695
Table 104: Graphene industrial collaborations and target markets 698
Table 105: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status 838
Table 106: Potential volume estimates (tons) and penetration of nanocellulose into key markets 842
Table 107: Global production of nanocellulose, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 843
Table 108: Market summary for nanocellulose-Selling grade particle diameter, usage, advantages, average price/ton, market estimates, global consumption, main current applications, future applications 846
Table 109: Nanocellulose properties 849
Table 110: Types of nanocellulose-Preparation methods, resulting materials and applications 854
Table 111: Properties and applications of nanocellulose 858
Table 112: Properties of cellulose nanofibrils relative to metallic and polymeric materials 860
Table 113: Nanocellulose nanocrystal sources and scale 861
Table 114: Nanofibrillated cellulose production methods 864
Table 115: Cellulose nanocrystals production methods 865
Table 116: Nanocellulose market structure 866
Table 117: Safety of Micro/Nanofibrillated cellulose 874
Table 118: Global production of nanocellulose, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 887
Table 119: Nanocellulose production plants worldwide and production status 889
Table 120: Nanocellulose producers and production capacity (Current and projected) 891
Table 121: Published patent publications for nanocellulose, 1997-2013 893
Table 122: Research publications on nanocellulose materials and composites, 1996-2013 894
Table 123: Nanocellulose patents by organisation 896
Table 124: Nanocellulose patents by organisation, 2014 896
Table 125: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the polymer composites market 898
Table 126: Limitations of nanocellulose in the development of polymer nanocomposites 901
Table 127: Comparative properties of polymer composites reinforcing materials 902
Table 128: Oxygen permeability of nanocellulose films compared to those made form commercially available petroleum based materials and other polymers 907
Table 129: Commercial activity in nanocellulose-based polymer composites-Companies and products 913
Table 130: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the paper and board markets 916
Table 131: Global packaging market, billions US$ 917
Table 132: Commercial activity in nanocellulose paper and board 922
Table 133: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the medical and healthcare markets 923
Table 134: Commercial activity in nanocellulose medical and healthcare applications 930
Table 135: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the coatings and paints markets 933
Table 136: Commercial activity in nanocellulose coatings and paints applications 939
Table 137: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the aerogels market 940
Table 138: Commercial activity in nanocellulose aerogels 943
Table 139: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the oil market 944
Table 140: Commercial activity in nanocellulose oil exploration 948
Table 141: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the filtration market 949
Table 142: Nanocellulose applications timeline in the rheology modifiers market 955
Table 143: Commercial activity in nanocellulose rheology modifiers 958
Table 144: Nanocellulose applications timeline in printable electronics 959
Table 145: Commercial activity in nanocellulose printable electronics 964
Table 146: Nanocellulose producers and types produced 965

FIGURES
Figure 1: Molecular structures of SWNT and MWNT 71
Figure 2: Production capacities for SWNTs in kilograms, 2005-2014 80
Figure 3: Global production of carbon nanotubes, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 82
Figure 4: Global government funding for graphene 93
Figure 5: Global market for graphene 2010-2025 in tons/year 99
Figure 6: Conceptual diagram of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) (A) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) (B) showing typical dimensions of length, width, and separation distance between graphene layers in MWNTs 113
Figure 7: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube 115
Figure 8: Figure 8: Double-walled carbon nanotube bundle cross-section micrograph and model 118
Figure 9: Schematic representation of carbon nanohorns 120
Figure 10: Fullerene schematic 121
Figure 11: Schematic of Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) Alternating B and N atoms are shown in blue and red 122
Figure 12: Graphene layer structure schematic 126
Figure 13: Graphite and graphene 126
Figure 14: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene 128
Figure 15: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite 132
Figure 16: Phosphorene structure 138
Figure 17: Silicene structure 141
Figure 18: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide 144
Figure 19: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor 146
Figure 20: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge 147
Figure 21: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride 149
Figure 22: Schematic of germanane 152
Figure 23: Graphdiyne structure 154
Figure 24: Schematic of Graphane crystal 156
Figure 25: Crystal structure for stanene 158
Figure 26: Schematic of tungsten diselenide 160
Figure 27: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide 162
Figure 28: Schematic representation of methods used for carbon nanotube synthesis (a) Arc discharge (b) Chemical vapor deposition (c) Laser ablation (d) hydrocarbon flames 166
Figure 29: Arc discharge process for CNTs 168
Figure 30: Schematic of thermal-CVD method 169
Figure 31: Schematic of plasma-CVD method 170
Figure 32: CoMoCAT® process 172
Figure 33: Schematic for flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes (a) premixed flame (b) counter-flow diffusion flame (c) co-flow diffusion flame (d) inverse diffusion flame 173
Figure 34: Schematic of laser ablation synthesis 174
Figure 35: Graphene synthesis methods 180
Figure 36: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process 192
Figure 37: CNT patents filed 2000-2014 213
Figure 38: Patent distribution of CNT application areas to 2014 214
Figure 39: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014 217
Figure 40: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for Carbon Nanotubes 221
Figure 41: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene 222
Figure 42: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in transparent conductive films and displays 227
Figure 43: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in batteries 228
Figure 44: Regional demand for CNTs utilized in Polymer reinforcement 228
Figure 45: Global production of graphene, 2010-2025 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2014 237
Figure 46: A large transparent conductive graphene film (about 20 × 20 cm2) manufactured by 2D Carbon Tech Figure 24a (right): Prototype of a mobile phone produced by 2D Carbon Tech using a graphene touch panel 302
Figure 47: CNT transparent conductive film formed on glass and schematic diagram of its structure 303
Figure 48: Graphene electrochromic devices Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte 306
Figure 49: Flexible transistor sheet 307
Figure 50: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene 311
Figure 51: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products 319
Figure 52: Nanotube inks 321
Figure 53: Graphene printed antenna 322
Figure 54: BGT Materials graphene ink product 323
Figure 55: Schematic cross-section of a graphene base transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right) 328
Figure 56: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs 331
Figure 57: Graphene IC in wafer tester 332
Figure 58: Stretchable CNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics 340
Figure 59: SEM image of the deposited film (or fabric) of crossed nanotubes that can be either touching or slightly separated depending on their position 343
Figure 60: Schematic of NRAM 343
Figure 61: Schematic of NRAM cell 344
Figure 62: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip 345
Figure 63: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt 347
Figure 64: Hybrid graphene phototransistors 351
Figure 65: Schematic representation of functionalized fullerene (A) and carbon nanotube (B) for drug delivery in cancer therapy 408
Figure 66: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market 426
Figure 67: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT 429
Figure 68: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating 435
Figure 69: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts 451
Figure 70: Nano Lithium X Battery 465
Figure 71: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor 468
Figure 72: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger 470
Figure 73: Suntech/TCNT nanotube frame module 475
Figure 74: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode 478
Figure 75: GFET sensors 504
Figure 76: First generation point of care diagnostics 506
Figure 77: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic 507
Figure 78: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament 515
Figure 79: Schematic illustration of the SWCNT-based electronic devices as a wearable array platform, which consists of memory units, capacitors, and logic circuits (left) 528
Figure 80: Global market for nanocellulose 2010-2025 in tons/year 845
Figure 81: Types of nanocellulose 849
Figure 82: Main steps involved in the preparation of NCC 863
Figure 83: Nanocellulose Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 882
Figure 84: Global market for nanocellulose 2010-2025 in tons/year 888
Figure 85: Nanocellulose patents by field of application, 2013 895
Figure 86: Paper and board global demand 918
Figure 87: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market 934
Figure 88: Nanocellulose sponge developed by EMPA for potential applications in oil recovery 947
Figure 89: NFC computer chip 962
Figure 90: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper 963
Date of Publication:
Nov 3, 2015
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
1045 Pages
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