Spectrum - Adaptive Wireless Communications Technologies and Markets

Spectrum - Adaptive Wireless Communications: Technologies and Markets

PracTel, Date of Publication: Oct 28, 2015, 166 Pages
US$3,900.00
PT1052

Wireless communications is under stress due to a rapid growth of traffic volume and limited available spectrum. This tendency necessitates rational utilization of this frequency spectrum, which became the most expensive entity in wireless networking. Meanwhile, multiple industry studies show that available licensed frequency spectrum is extremely underutilized. The relatively low utilization of the licensed spectrum suggests that spectrum scarcity, as perceived today, is largely due to inefficient fixed frequency allocations rather than any physical shortage of spectrum.

The report analyzes modern communications technologies based on Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio (CR/SDR) that allow adaptive use of the spectrum in accordance with instantaneous space/time coordinates. The CR technology is heavily dependent upon the SDR technology as radio needs to be configurable according to the prevailing spectrum environment.

Current technologies for dynamic spectrum access largely rely on database-managed approaches. Standards are also emerging that incorporate cognitive elements, where devices can adapt their operating parameters in conjunction with a centralized database. Autonomous cognitive capabilities through sensing techniques at the device level would, where feasible, offer far greater flexibility for future sharing, These emerging techniques could be used within a number of bands across the radio spectrum to deliver different types of wireless service, and could play a role in making more efficient use of spectrum by improving channel throughput within shared operating environments.

Related to CR/SDR standards and markets are subjects of this report research. As an example, one of the first commercial CR/SDR application – TV White Space (TVWS) communications is being discussed. The survey of multiple vendors’ portfolios was conducted.

1. The CR/SDR technologies, applications, the industry and markets analyses have been performed to show roots of TVWS communications.
2. TVWS communications origin, properties, regulations, standards and the industry have been analyzed.

The report concludes that development of CR/SDR for WS and particular TVWS communications opens a door to utilization previously unused windows of wireless spectrum saving valuable resources and contributing into growth of the economy.

This report, in particular, provides:

CR/SDR

- An overview of the regulatory climate for CR/SDR in major developed countries.
- The analysis of the CR/SDR standardization process
- An overview CR/SDR technologies specifics
- The analysis of CR/SDR applications, including military, Public Safety Communications, and commercial
- The analysis of market drivers from perspective of various industry and users groups
- Analyses of CR/SDR global market trends, with projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs): 2015- 2019.
- Market intelligence on SDR based solutions in the commercial, government, and military industry segments.
- Market geographical specifics
- Estimate of major market components
- Information on key suppliers of CR/SDR products and their profiles.

TVWS

- Overview of TVWS developmental cycles
- Analysis of the regulatory climate: FCC, Ofcom, other
- Use cases
- Standardization: IEEE, ETSI, ECMA, IETF
- Survey of the industry
- Marketing considerations

Patents Survey

- WS communication - related patents identified and information provided (limited to patents approved in 2015).
- CR - related patents identified and information provided (limited to patents approved in 2015).

The report is written for a wide audience of researches, engineers and managers that are involved in the development and utilization of cognitive radios and related technologies.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction 

1.1 Traffic Growth 8
1.2 Price of Spectrum 10
1.3 Methods 10
1.4 Working Together 10
1.5 Scope 11
1.6 Research Methodology 12
1.7 Target Audience 12

2.0 Synergy: Software Defined and Cognitive Radios

2.1 General 13
2.2 Purpose 13
2.3 Definitions (WIF, FCC, ITU) 13
2.3.1 SDR 13
2.3.1.1 Multi-tiers: SDR 14
2.3.2 Cognitive Radio 16
2.3.2.1 Details 16
2.4 Regulations 18
2.4.1 FCC 18
2.4.1.1 Equipment Type 18
2.4.1.2 Process 18
2.4.1.3 Application Guide 20
2.4.1.4 First Approval 20
2.4.2 ITU 20
2.4.3 Ofcom 22
2.5 Standardization Organizations Efforts 22
2.5.1 ITU-R 22
2.5.2 ETSI 22
2.5.2.2 Major Points 23
2.5.3 3GPP 24
2.5.4 IEEE 24
2.5.5 NASA 24
2.6 Design Issues 25
2.7 Properties 26
2.7.1 Layers 26
2.7.2 Features: Details 27
2.7.2.1 Versatility 28
2.7.3 Issues 29
2.8 SDR Implementations 30
2.9 Applications 31
2.9.1 Commercial 32
2.9.2 SDR/CR in Military 33
2.9.2.1 SCA 34
2.9.2.1.1 ESSOR: European Secure SOftware Defined Radio 36
2.9.3 Public Safety Communications (PSC) 36
2.10 SDR/CR: Benefits 38
2.11 Impact - CR 40
2.11.1 Geographical Differences 40
2.12 Market 41
2.12.1 Landscape 41
2.12.1.1 Factors 42
2.12.2 Cost 42
2.12.3 Different Perspective 43
2.12.4 Market Drivers-Summary 44
2.12.5 Market Forecast 46
2.12.5.1 Model Assumptions 46
2.12.5.2 Estimate 46
2.12.5.3 Segments 47
2.12.5.4 Geography 48
2.12.5.5 Components 49
2.13 Industry 49
Aeronix (SDR Components) 49
Adapt4 (CR) 50
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations) 52
AirSpan (BS) 52
Airbus DS 53
Alcatel-Lucent (Base Stations) 54
Analog Devises (Chipsets) 56
Cambridge Consultants (PHY, Base Station) 57
Carlson Wireless (Platform) 58
Coherent Logix (SDR) 59
General Dynamics (SDR) 60
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW) 61
Datron World Communications (SDR) 63
Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules) 64
Elbit 65
Ettus Research (Platform) 66
Etherstack (Software) 67
Ericsson (BS) 68
Green Hills (Software) 69
Harris (SDR) 71
Huawei (Platform) 72
Intel (Platform) 73
Lockheed Martin (SDR) 74
Lyrtech (DSP and FPGA development solutions) 74
Motorola Solutions (BS) 76
Nokia Siemens Networks (Base Station) 76
Northrup Grumman 77
Objective Interface Systems (Software) 78
Octasic (SDR) 80
PrismTech (SDR Development Environment) 80
Redline Communications (Platform) 82
Rockwell Collins (Radios) 83
Saankhya Labs (Chipset) 85
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms) 86
Thales (Radio) 87
TI (Chips) 88
Vanu (Base Stations) 89
Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit) 91
xG Technology (CR) 92
ZTE (Platforms) 93
2.14 CR/SDR Commercial Application: White Spaces Communications 95
2.14.1 General 95
2.14.2 Definition: TVWS 97
2.14.3 Roots 97
2.14.4 FCC Activity 98
2.14.4.1 Decision 98
2.14.4.2 Devices 98
2.14.4.3 Clarifications 100
2.14.4.4 Sensing 102
2.14.4.5 Specifics 103
2.14.4.5.1 Protection 103
2.14.4.5.2 Frequencies 103
2.14.4.5.3 TVWS Database (U.S.) 104
2.14.4.5.4 Related FCC Decisions 107
2.14.5 Japan 107
2.14.6 Europe and Other Countries 108
2.14.7 Ecosystem and Use Cases 110
2.14.8 WS Communications Standardization 111
2.14.8.1 WS Alliance 112
2.14.8.1.1 Wi-FAR 112
2.14.8.1.1.1 First TVWS Chipset 113
2.14.8.1.2 WSAConnect 113
2.14.8.2 Wireless Innovation Forum (WIF) 114
2.14.8.3 Cognitive Radio: WS-related IEEE Standards 115
2.14.8.3.1 IEEE 802.11af - 2013 117
2.14.8.3.1.1 General: Expectations - Wi-Fi on Steroids 117
2.14.8.3.1.2 Differences 118
2.14.8.3.1.3 Benefits 118
2.14.8.3.1.4 Specifics 119
2.14.8.3.1.5 Building Blocks 120
2.14.8.3.1.6 PHY 121
2.14.8.3.1.7 Prototyping and Trials - 2015 121
2.14.8.3.1.8 Summary 121
2.14.8.3.2 IEEE 802.22 - 2011 122
2.14.8.3.2.1 General 122
2.14.8.3.2.2 WG 802.22 and FCC 123
2.14.8.3.2.3 Overview 124
2.14.8.3.2.4 Physical Layer - Major Characteristics 125
2.14.8.3.2.5 Cognitive Functions and MAC 127
2.14.8.3.3 IEEE 802.22.1 128
2.14.8.3.4 IEEE 802.22.2 128
2.14.8.3.5 IEEE 802.22a-2014 129
2.14.8.3.6 P802.22b 129
2.14.8.3.7 P802.22.3 130
2.14.8.3.8 Summary-IEEE802.22 130
2.14.8.3.9 IEEE 802.19 WG 132
2.14.8.3.9.1 IEEE 802.19.1-2014 132
2.14.8.3.10 IEEE 802.15.4m-2014 133
2.14.8.3.11 IEEE SCC 41 - DySpan SCC - WS Related 134
2.14.8.3.11.1 IEEE 1900.4 134
2.14.8.3.11.2 P1900.7 135
2.14.8.4 CogNeA and ECMA Activity 136
2.14.8.4.1 CogNeA 136
2.14.8.4.2 ECMA-392-2011 136
2.14.8.4.2.1 Development 137
2.14.8.5 IETF-PAWS 138
2.14.8.6 ETSI 138
2.15 Industry 139
Adaptrum 140
ATDI 140
Aviacomm 141
Carlson Wireless 142
KTS Wireless 143
Metric Systems 143
Neul (acquired by Huawei in 2014) 144
Redline Communications 146
Shared Spectrum Company 147
Sinecom 148
Saankhya Labs 149
Spectrum Bridge 149
TI/Azcom 152
2.16 Market 153
2.17 Trials and Projects 155

3.0 Conclusions

ATTACHMENT I: Detection and Incumbent Protection - TVWS 158
ATTACHMENT II: WS-related Patents 159
ATTACHMENT III: CR-related Patents 162

Figure 1: Global: Mobile Data Traffic Growth (Petabytes/Month) 8
Figure 2: Estimate: Average Mobile Subscriber Use of Data (GB/Month) 9
Figure 3: Estimate: Number of M2M Connections - Global (B) 10
Figure 4: Layers 11
Figure 5: Conceptual View 18
Figure 6: Reconfigurable BS 23
Figure 7: ETSI SDR: Functional Architecture 24
Figure 8: SDR and OSI Reference Model 27
Figure 9: CR - Cell Network 33
Figure 10: PSC Specifics 37
Figure 11: TAM: Global Sales: SDR-based Equipment ($B) 47
Figure 12: SDR/CR Market Segments 48
Figure 13: SDR/CR Market Geography (2015) 49
Figure 14: Spectrum Usage Measurements (from NSF Spectrum Occupancy Measurements 93
Figure 15: TVWS Channels: U.S. 96
Figure 16: UK TVWS- Spectrum 105
Figure 17: Device Interoperability Specification Items 112
Figure 18: Comparison - WRANs 122
Figure 19: Architecture: 802.19.1 130
Figure 20: TVWS Market 151

Table 1: SDR Tiers 16
Table 2: CR Features 17
Table 3: U.S. - PSC Users 37
Table 4: SDR Market Drivers 45
Table 5: TV Channels: WS Frequencies Allowed by FCC 97
Table 6: TV Channels and Fixed TVBDs: U.S. 101
Table 7: Database Status (2015) 103
Table 8: IEEE WS-related Standards: Samples 114
Table 9: Use Cases - P802.22b 127
Table 10: Major Characteristics: IEEE 802.22 128

 

Date of Publication:
Oct 28, 2015
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
166 Pages
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