Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027

Future Markets, Date of Publication: May 11, 2018, 767 Pages
US$1,360.00
FM4840

The Graphene Report is a comprehensive analysis of the market and commercial opportunities for these remarkable materials. This new edition has greatly expanded the sections covering flexible electronics, wearables and energy and details on industry demand in tons (current and projected) has been added for key markets.

A number of graphene-enhanced products came to the market in 2017 in consumer electronic equipment, composites, energy storage etc. and commercial development will grow further in 2018 in automotive, flexible electronics, coatings and sensors.

Companies who have recently purchased this report include: Calloway Golf, The Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Grafoid, Denso Corporation, ITRI, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Directa-Plus, KIST Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Sasol, Lubrizol, Cabot Corporation, ICL and many more.

Report contents include:

  • Global production capacities-historical, current and forecast to 2027.
  • Current and planned graphene products.
  • Market outlook for 2018.
  • Stage of commercialization for graphene applications, from basic research to market entry.
  • Market drivers, trends and challenges, by end user markets.
  • In-depth market assessment of opportunities for graphene including tonnage demand by market, growth rates, pricing, most likely applications and market challenges.
  • Market demand in tons 2017-2027.
  • In-depth company profiles, including products, capacities, and commercial activities.
  • Detailed forecasts for key growth areas, opportunities and user demand.
  • Assessment of applications for other 2D materials.
  • Over 230 company profiles.

Published: May 2018 | Pages: 767 pages | 216 tables, 189 figures | | Table of contents

The Global Market for Graphene 2018-2027
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.1 Market opportunity analysis 60
1.2 Market challenges rating system 62

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2.1 Two-dimensional (2D) materials 65
2.2 Graphene 65
2.2.1 The market in 2016 66
2.2.2 The market in 2017 66
2.2.3 Production 67
2.2.4 Products 69
2.2.5 Graphene investments 2016-2017 71
2.3 Market outlook for 2018 72
2.3.1 Global funding and initiatives 78
2.3.2 Products and applications 79
2.3.3 Production 81
2.3.4 Market drivers and trends 83
2.3.5 Market and technical challenges 90
2.4 Key players 92
2.4.1 Asia-Pacific 92
2.4.1.1 Australia 94
2.4.2 North America 95
2.4.3 Europe 96

3 PROPERTIES OF NANOMATERIALS 

3.1 Categorization 98

4 OVERVIEW OF GRAPHENE

4.1 History 100
4.2 Forms of graphene 101
4.3 Properties 102
4.4 3D Graphene 104
4.5 Graphene Quantum Dots 104
4.5.1 Synthesis 106
4.5.2 Applications 106
4.5.2.1 Optoelectronics, electronics and photonics 106
4.5.2.2 Energy 106
4.5.2.3 Biomedicine and healthcare 107
4.5.2.4 Other 107
4.5.2.5 Pricing 108
4.5.3 Producers 108

5 CARBON NANOTUBES VERSUS GRAPHENE

5.1 Comparative properties 111
5.2 Cost and production 112
5.3 Carbon nanotube-graphene hybrids 113
5.4 Competitive analysis of carbon nanotubes and graphene 114

6 OTHER 2-D MATERIALS

6.1 Beyond moore’s law 118
6.2 Batteries 118
6.3 PHOSPHORENE 119
6.3.1 Properties 119
6.3.1.1 Fabrication methods 121
6.3.1.2 Challenges for the use of phosphorene in devices 121
6.3.2 Applications 121
6.3.2.1 Electronics 121
6.3.2.2 Thermoelectrics 122
6.3.2.3 Batteries 122
6.3.2.4 Supercapacitors 123
6.3.2.5 Photodetectors 124
6.3.2.6 Sensors 124
6.3.3 Market opportunity assessment 124
6.4 GRAPHITIC CARBON NITRIDE (g-C3N4) 125
6.4.1 Properties 125
6.4.2 Synthesis 126
6.4.3 C2N 126
6.4.4 Applications 127
6.4.4.1 Electronics 127
6.4.4.2 Filtration membranes 127
6.4.4.3 Photocatalysts 127
6.4.4.4 Batteries (LIBs) 127
6.4.4.5 Sensors 127
6.4.5 Market opportunity assessment 128
6.5 GERMANENE 128
6.5.1 Properties 129
6.5.2 Applications 129
6.5.2.1 Electronics 129
6.5.2.2 Batteries 129
6.5.3 Market opportunity assessment 130
6.6 GRAPHDIYNE 130
6.6.1 Properties 131
6.6.2 Applications 131
6.6.2.1 Electronics 131
6.6.2.2 Batteries 131
6.6.2.3 Separation membranes 132
6.6.2.4 Water filtration 132
6.6.2.5 Photocatalysts 132
6.6.2.6 Photovoltaics 132
6.6.3 Market opportunity assessment 133
6.7 GRAPHANE 133
6.7.1 Properties 134
6.7.2 Applications 134
6.7.2.1 Electronics 134
6.7.2.2 Hydrogen storage 134
6.7.3 Market opportunity assessment 135
6.8 HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE 135
6.8.1 Properties 136
6.8.2 Applications 137
6.8.2.1 Electronics 137
6.8.2.2 Fuel cells 137
6.8.2.3 Adsorbents 137
6.8.2.4 Photodetectors 137
6.8.2.5 Textiles 137
6.8.2.6 Biomedical 138
6.8.3 Market opportunity assessment 138
6.9 MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE (MoS2) 139
6.9.1 Properties 139
6.9.2 Applications 140
6.9.2.1 Electronics 140
6.9.2.2 Photovoltaics 141
6.9.2.3 Piezoelectrics 141
6.9.2.4 Sensors 142
6.9.2.5 Filtration 142
6.9.2.6 Batteries 142
6.9.2.7 Fiber lasers 142
6.9.3 Market opportunity assessment 143
6.10 RHENIUM DISULFIDE (ReS2) AND DISELENIDE (ReSe2) 143
6.10.1 Properties 144
6.10.2 Applications 144
6.10.2.1 Electronics 144
6.10.3 Market opportunity assessment 144
6.11 SILICENE 145
6.11.1 Properties 145
6.11.2 Applications 146
6.11.2.1 Electronics 146
6.11.2.2 Photovoltaics 147
6.11.2.3 Thermoelectrics 147
6.11.2.4 Batteries 147
6.11.2.5 Sensors 147
6.11.3 Market opportunity assessment 148
6.12 STANENE/TINENE 148
6.12.1 Properties 149
6.12.2 Applications 149
6.12.2.1 Electronics 149
6.12.3 Market opportunity assessment 150
6.13 TUNGSTEN DISELENIDE 150
6.13.1 Properties 151
6.13.2 Applications 151
6.13.2.1 Electronics 151
6.13.3 Market opportunity assessment 152
6.14 ANTIMONENE 152
6.14.1 Properties 152
6.14.2 Applications 152
6.15 DIAMENE 153
6.15.1 Properties 153
6.15.2 Applications 153
6.16 INDIUM SELENIDE 153
6.16.1 Properties 153
6.16.2 Applications 154
6.16.2.1 Electronics 154
6.17 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GRAPHENE AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS 155

7 GRAPHENE SYNTHESIS

7.1 Large area graphene films 157
7.2 Graphene oxide flakes and graphene nanoplatelets 158
7.3 Production methods 159
7.3.1 Production directly from natural graphite ore 162
7.3.2 Alternative starting materials 162
7.3.3 Quality 163
7.4 Synthesis and production by types of graphene 164
7.4.1 Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) 164
7.4.2 Graphene nanoribbons 165
7.4.3 Large-area graphene films 166
7.4.4 Graphene oxide (GO) 167
7.5 Pros and cons of graphene production methods 168
7.5.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 169
7.5.2 Exfoliation method 171
7.5.3 Epitaxial growth method 173
7.5.4 Wet chemistry method (liquid phase exfoliation) 173
7.5.5 Micromechanical cleavage method 174
7.5.6 Green reduction of graphene oxide 175
7.5.7 Plasma 176
7.6 Recent synthesis methods 176

7.7 Synthesis methods by company 181

8 GRAPHENE MARKET STRUCTURE AND ROUTES TO COMMERCIALIZATION

9 REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

9.1 Standards 187
9.2 Environmental, health and safety regulation 187
9.2.1 Europe 188
9.2.2 United States 188
9.2.3 Asia 188
9.3 Workplace exposure 189

10 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS

10.1 Fabrication processes 190
10.2 Academia 190
10.3 Regional leaders 191

11 TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL

12 GRAPHENE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS 2013-2018-INVESTMENTS, PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION

13 GRAPHENE END USER MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS

13.1 Graphene production volumes 2010-2027 250
13.2 Graphene pricing 252
13.2.1 Pristine Graphene Flakes pricing 253
13.2.2 Few-Layer Graphene pricing 254
13.2.3 Graphene Nanoplatelets pricing 255
13.2.4 Reduced Graphene Oxide pricing 255
13.2.5 Graphene Quantum Dots pricing 256
13.2.6 Graphene Oxide Nanosheets pricing 257
13.2.7 Multilayer Graphene (MLG) pricing 258
13.2.8 Mass production of lower grade graphene materials 258
13.2.9 High grade graphene difficult to mass produce 259
13.2.10 Bulk supply 259
13.2.11 Commoditisation 260
13.3 Graphene producers and production capacities 260

14 3D PRINTING

14.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 262
14.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 262
14.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 264
14.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 266
14.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 267

15 ADHESIVES 

15.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 268
15.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 269
15.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 270
15.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 274
15.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 275

16 AEROSPACE

16.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 276
16.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 277
16.2.1 Composites 277
16.2.2 Coatings 278
16.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORUNTIY 280
16.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 284
16.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 285

17 AUTOMOTIVE 

17.1 MARKET DRIVER AND TRENDS 288
17.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 289
17.2.1 Composites 290
17.2.2 Thermally conductive additives 291
17.2.3 Tires 291
17.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 293
17.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 297
17.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 298

18 COATINGS 

18.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 302
18.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 307
18.2.1 Anti-corrosion coatings 309
18.2.1.1 Marine 310
18.2.2 Anti-microbial 310
18.2.3 Anti-icing 311
18.2.4 Barrier coatings 312
18.2.5 Heat protection 313
18.2.6 Anti-fouling 314
18.2.7 Wear and abrasion resistance 315
18.2.8 Smart windows 316
18.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 317
18.3.1 Thermal barrier coatings 320
18.3.2 Barrier coatings 321
18.3.3 Anti-microbial coatings 321
18.3.4 De-icing or anti-icing coatings 321
18.3.5 Abrasion and wear resistant coatings 321
18.3.6 Anti-corrosion coatings 321
18.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 326
18.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 327

19 COMPOSITES 

19.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 330
19.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 333
19.2.1 Polymer composites 333
19.2.2 Barrier packaging 335
19.2.3 Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding 336
19.2.4 Wind turbines 336
19.2.5 Ballistic protection 336
19.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 336
19.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 340
19.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 341

20 ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS 

20.1 FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, WEARABLES, CONDUCTIVE FILMS AND DISPLAYS 345
20.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 345
20.1.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 347
20.1.2.1 Transparent electrodes in flexible electronics 351
20.1.2.2 Electronic paper 353
20.1.2.3 Wearable electronics 353
20.1.2.4 Wearable sensors 357
20.1.2.5 Industrial monitoring 363
20.1.2.6 Military 363
20.1.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 364
20.1.3.1 Transparent conductive electrodes 369
20.1.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 370
20.1.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 374
20.2 CONDUCTIVE INKS 376
20.2.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 376
20.2.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 377
20.2.2.1 RFID 379
20.2.2.2 Smart labels 382
20.2.2.3 Smart clothing 382
20.2.2.4 Printable sensors 383
20.2.2.5 Printed batteries 383
20.2.2.6 Printable antennas 385
20.2.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 386
20.2.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 392
20.2.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 393
20.3 TRANSISTORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 394
20.3.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 394
20.3.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 396
20.3.2.1 Integrated circuits 396
20.3.2.2 Transistors 397
20.3.2.3 Graphene Radio Frequency (RF) circuits 398
20.3.2.4 Graphene spintronics 399
20.3.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 400
20.3.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 404
20.3.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 406
20.4 MEMORY DEVICES 408
20.4.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 408
20.4.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 409
20.4.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 413
20.4.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 414
20.4.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 415
20.5 PHOTONICS 416
20.5.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 416
20.5.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 417
20.5.2.1 Si photonics versus graphene 417
20.5.2.2 Optical modulators 418
20.5.2.3 Photodetectors 418
20.5.2.4 Saturable absorbers 420
20.5.2.5 Plasmonics 420
20.5.2.6 Fiber lasers 421
20.5.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 422
20.5.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 423
20.5.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 424

21 ENERGY STORAGE, CONVERSION AND EXPLORATION

21.1 BATTERIES 427
21.1.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 427
21.1.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 431
21.1.2.1 Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) 431
21.1.2.2 Lithium-air batteries 432
21.1.2.3 Lithium–sulfur batteries (Li–S) 432
21.1.2.4 Sodium-ion batteries 432
21.1.2.5 Flexible and stretchable batteries 432
21.1.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 436
21.1.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 441
21.1.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 442
21.2 SUPERCAPACITORS 447
21.2.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 447
21.2.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 448
21.2.2.1 Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors 451
21.2.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 453
21.2.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 455
21.2.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 456
21.3 PHOTOVOLTAICS 458
21.3.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 458
21.3.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 459
21.3.2.1 ITO replacement 460
21.3.2.2 Graphene–silicon (Gr–Si) Schottky junction solar cells 461
21.3.2.3 Halide perovskites/graphene hybrids 461
21.3.2.4 Solar energy harvesting textiles 461
21.3.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 463
21.3.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 466
21.3.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 467
21.4 FUEL CELLS 468
21.4.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 468
21.4.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 469
21.4.2.1 Electrocatalyst supports 470
21.4.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 471
21.4.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 473
21.4.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 474
21.5 LED LIGHTING AND UVC 474
21.5.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 474
21.5.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 475
21.5.2.1 Flexible OLED lighting 475
21.5.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 477
21.5.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 479
21.5.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 480
21.6 OIL AND GAS 481
21.6.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 481
21.6.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 482
21.6.2.1 Sensing and reservoir management 483
21.6.2.2 Coatings 484
21.6.2.3 Drilling fluids 485
21.6.2.4 Sorbent materials 486
21.6.2.5 Catalysts 486
21.6.2.6 Separation 487
21.6.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 488
21.6.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 491
21.6.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 492

22 FILTRATION

22.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 493
22.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 494
22.2.1 Water filtration 496
22.2.2 Gas separation 496
22.2.3 Photocatalytic absorbents 497
22.2.4 Air filtration 497
22.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 498
22.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 501
22.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 502

23 LIFE SCIENCES AND MEDICAL

23.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 506
23.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 508
23.2.1 Cancer therapy 512
23.2.1.1 Graphene oxide for therapy and drug delivery 512
23.2.1.2 Graphene nanosheets 512
23.2.1.3 Gene delivery 512
23.2.1.4 Photodynamic Therapy 512
23.2.2 Medical implants and devices 513
23.2.3 Wound dressings 513
23.2.4 Biosensors 514
23.2.4.1 FRET biosensors for DNA detection 515
23.2.5 Medical imaging 515
23.2.6 Tissue engineering 515
23.2.7 Dental 516
23.2.8 Electrophysiology 516
23.2.9 Wearable and mobile health monitoring 516
23.2.9.1 Graphene devices 518
23.2.9.2 Patch-type skin sensors 520
23.2.9.3 Skin temperature monitoring 522
23.2.9.4 Hydration sensors 523
23.2.9.5 Wearable sweat sensors 524
23.2.9.6 Smart footwear 526
23.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 526
23.3.1 Wearable healthcare 527
23.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 532
23.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 534

24 LUBRICANTS 

24.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 537

24.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 538

24.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 539

24.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 541

24.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 542

25 RUBBER AND TIRES 

325.1 APPLICATIONS 543
25.2 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 543
25.3 MARKET CHALLENGES 545
25.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 546

26 SENSORS

26.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 548
26.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS 549
26.2.1 Infrared (IR) sensors 552
26.2.2 Electrochemical and gas sensors 552
26.2.2.1 Graphene foam 553
26.2.3 Pressure sensors 553
26.2.4 Biosensors 554
26.2.5 Optical sensors 556
26.2.6 Humidity sensors 556
26.2.7 Strain sensors 556
26.2.8 Acoustic sensors 556
26.2.9 Wireless sensors 556
26.2.10 Surface enhanced Raman scattering 557
26.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 557
26.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 560
26.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 562

27 SMART TEXTILES AND APPAREL 

27.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 564
27.2 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATONS 568
27.2.1 Conductive coatings 572
27.2.2 Conductive yarns 573
27.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 574
27.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 579
27.5 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 580

28 OTHER MARKETS

28.1 CEMENT ADDITIVES 582
28.1.1 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND OPPORTUNITY 582
28.1.2 PRODUCT DEVELOPERS 583

29 GRAPHENE PRODUCERS 586-669 (120 company profiles)

30 GRAPHENE PRODUCT AND APPLICATION DEVELOPERS (116 company profiles)

31 REFERENCES 

TABLES

Table 1: Demand for graphene (tons), 2010-2027 68
Table 2: Consumer products incorporating graphene 70
Table 3: Graphene investments and financial agreements 2017 71
Table 4: Market opportunity assessment matrix for graphene applications 74
Table 5: Graphene target markets-Applications and potential addressable market size 80
Table 6: Main graphene producers by country and annual production capacities 81
Table 7: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets 85
Table 8: Categorization of nanomaterials 98
Table 9: Properties of graphene 103
Table 10: Comparison of graphene QDs and semiconductor QDs 105
Table 11: Graphene quantum dot producers 108
Table 12: Comparative properties of carbon materials 111
Table 13: Comparative properties of graphene with nanoclays and carbon nanotubes 113
Table 14: Competitive analysis of Carbon nanotubes and graphene by application area and potential impact by 2027 114
Table 15: 2D materials types 116
Table 16: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2 120
Table 17: Market opportunity assessment for phosphorene applications 124
Table 18: Market opportunity assessment for graphitic carbon nitride applications 128
Table 19: Market opportunity assessment for germanene applications 130
Table 20: Market opportunity assessment for graphdiyne applications 133
Table 21: Market opportunity assessment for graphane applications 135
Table 22: Market opportunity assessment for hexagonal boron nitride applications 138
Table 23: Market opportunity assessment for molybdenum disulfide applications 143
Table 24: Market opportunity assessment for Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2) applications 144
Table 25: Market opportunity assessment for silicene applications 148
Table 26: Market opportunity assessment for stanine/tinene applications 150
Table 27: Market opportunity assessment for tungsten diselenide applications 152
Table 28: Comparative analysis of graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials 155
Table 29: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market 157
Table 30: Graphene oxide flakes/graphene nanoplatelets-Markets, applications and current global market 158
Table 31: Main production methods for graphene 159
Table 32: Large area graphene films-Markets, applications and current global market 167
Table 33: Graphene synthesis methods, by company 181
Table 34: Graphene market structure 183
Table 35: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014 191
Table 36: Leading graphene patentees 192
Table 37: Industrial graphene patents in 2014 192
Table 38: Global production of graphene, 2010-2027 in tons/year Base year for projections is 2015 250
Table 39: Types of graphene and prices 252
Table 40: Pristine graphene flakes pricing by producer 253
Table 41: Few-layer graphene pricing by producer 254
Table 42: Graphene nanoplatelets pricing by producer 255
Table 43: Reduced graphene oxide pricing, by producer 256
Table 44: Graphene quantum dots pricing by producer 257
Table 45: Graphene oxide nanosheets pricing by producer 257
Table 46: Multi-layer graphene pricing by producer 258
Table 47: Production capacities of graphene producers, current and planned, metric tons 260
Table 48: Market drivers for use of graphene in 3D printing 262
Table 49: Graphene properties relevant to application in 3D printing 263
Table 50: Market size for graphene in 3D printing 264
Table 51: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in 3D printing 264
Table 52: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2027 265
Table 53: Market challenges rating for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the 3D printing market 266
Table 54: Market drivers for use of graphene in adhesives 268
Table 55: Graphene properties relevant to application in adhesives 269
Table 56: Applications and benefits of graphene in adhesives 270
Table 57: Market size for graphene in adhesives 271
Table 58: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in adhesives 272
Table 59: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027 273
Table 60: Market challenges rating for graphene in the adhesives market 274
Table 61: Market drivers for use of graphene in aerospace 276
Table 62: Applications and benefits of graphene in aerospace 279
Table 63: Market size for graphene in aerospace 280
Table 64: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in aerospace 282
Table 65: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027 283
Table 66: Market challenges rating for graphene in the aerospace market 284
Table 67: Market drivers for use of graphene in the automotive sector 288
Table 68: Applications and benefits of graphene in the automotive industry 292
Table 69: Market size for graphene in the automotive industry 293
Table 70: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the automotive industry 293
Table 71: Demand for graphene in automotive (tons), 2018-2027 296
Table 72: Market challenges rating for graphene in the automotive sector 298
Table 73: Properties of nanocoatings 302
Table 74: Graphene properties relevant to application in coatings 308
Table 75: Markets for nanocoatings 318
Table 76: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the coatings market 324
Table 77: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027 325
Table 78: Market challenges rating for graphene in the coatings market 327
Table 79: Market drivers for use of graphene in composites 330
Table 80: Graphene properties relevant to application in polymer composites 333
Table 81: Applications and benefits of graphene in composites 334
Table 82: Market size for graphene in composites 336
Table 83: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the composites market 338
Table 84: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027 340
Table 85: Market challenges rating for graphene in the composites market 341
Table 86: Market drivers for use of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 345
Table 87: Applications and benefits of graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 349
Table 88: Comparison of ITO replacements 350
Table 89: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development 354
Table 90: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors 361
Table 91: Market size for graphene in flexible electronics and conductive films 364
Table 92: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays 366
Table 93: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $ 368
Table 94: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2027 368
Table 95: Market challenges rating for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market 373
Table 96: Market drivers for use of graphene in conductive inks 376
Table 97: Comparative properties of conductive inks 377
Table 98: Printable electronics products 379
Table 99: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics 381
Table 100: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof 383
Table 101: Potential addressable market for graphene in conductive inks 387
Table 102: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in conductive inks 388
Table 103: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types 391
Table 104: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027 391
Table 105: Market impediments for graphene in conductive inks 392
Table 106: Market drivers for use of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 394
Table 107: Comparative properties of silicon and graphene transistors 397
Table 108: Applications and benefits of graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 399
Table 109: Market size for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 401
Table 110: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in transistors, integrated circuits and other components 401
Table 111: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2027 403
Table 112: Market challenges rating for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market 405
Table 113: Market drivers for use of graphene in memory devices 408
Table 114: Market size for graphene in memory devices 413
Table 115: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2027 414
Table 116: Applications and commercialization challenges for graphene in the memory devices market 414
Table 117: Market drivers for use of graphene in photonics 416
Table 118: Graphene properties relevant to application in optical modulators 418
Table 119: Applications and benefits of graphene in photonics 421
Table 120: Market size for graphene in photonics 422
Table 121: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2027 422
Table 122: Market challenges rating for graphene in the photonics market 424
Table 123: Market drivers for use of graphene in batteries 428
Table 124: Wearable energy and energy harvesting devices and stage of development 433
Table 125: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof 435
Table 126: Market size for graphene in batteries 437
Table 127: Potential addressable market for thin film, flexible and printed batteries 438
Table 128: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in batteries 439
Table 129: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027 441
Table 130: Market challenges for graphene in energy 442
Table 131: Market challenges rating for graphene in the batteries market 442
Table 132: Market drivers for use of graphene in supercapacitors 447
Table 133: Comparative properties of graphene supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries 449
Table 134: Applications and benefits of graphene in supercapacitors 450
Table 135: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof 452
Table 136: Market size for graphene in supercapacitors 453
Table 137: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in supercapacitors 454
Table 138: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027 454
Table 139: Market challenges rating for graphene in the supercapacitors market 456
Table 140: Market drivers for use of graphene in photovoltaics 458
Table 141: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics 463
Table 142: Market size for graphene in photovoltaics 464
Table 143: Potential addressable market for photovoltaics 464
Table 144: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2027 465
Table 145: Market challenges rating for graphene in the solar market 467
Table 146: Market drivers for use of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 468
Table 147: Applications and benefits of graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 470
Table 148: Market size for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 471
Table 149: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in fuel cells and hydrogen storage 472
Table 150: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2027 472
Table 151: Market challenges rating for graphene in the fuel cells market 473
Table 152: Market drivers for use of graphene in LED lighting and UVC 474
Table 153: Applications of graphene in lighting 475
Table 154: Market size for graphene in LED lighting and UVC 477
Table 155: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the lighting market 478
Table 156: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2027 478
Table 157: Market impediments for graphene in lighting 479
Table 158: Market drivers for graphene in oil and gas 481
Table 159: Applications of graphene in the oil and gas market 482
Table 160: Application markets, competing materials, graphene advantages and current market size in oil and gas 488
Table 161: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the oil and gas market 489
Table 162: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the oil and gas market 489
Table 163: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2027 490
Table 164: Market challenges rating for graphene in the oil and gas market 491
Table 165: Market drivers for use of graphene in filtration 493
Table 166: Applications and benefits of graphene in filtration and separation 495
Table 167: Market size for graphene in filtration 498
Table 168: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the filtration and separation market 499
Table 169: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027 500
Table 170: Market challenges rating for graphene in the filtration and separation market 501
Table 171: Market drivers for use of graphene in the life sciences and medical market 506
Table 172: Graphene properties relevant to application in biomedicine and healthcare 509
Table 173: Applications and benefits of graphene in life sciences and medical 509
Table 174: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof 519
Table 175: Market size for graphene in biomedical and healthcare 526
Table 176: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets 529
Table 177: Potential addressable market for graphene in biomedical & healthcare markets 530
Table 178: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027 531
Table 179: Market challenges in graphene in biomedicine and healthcare 533
Table 180: Market challenges rating for graphene in the biomedical and healthcare market 534
Table 181: Market drivers for use of graphene in lubricants 537
Table 182: Applications of graphene in the lubricants market 538
Table 183: Applications of carbon nanomaterials in lubricants 538
Table 184: Market size for graphene in lubricants 539
Table 185: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in lubricants 540
Table 186: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027 540
Table 187: Market challenges rating for graphene in the lubricants market 541
Table 188: Applications of graphene in rubber and tires 543
Table 189: Market summary and revenues for graphene in the rubber and tires market 543
Table 190: Investment opportunity assessment for graphene in the rubber and tires market 544
Table 191: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027 545
Table 192: Market challenges for graphene in rubber and tires 545
Table 193: Market drivers for use of graphene in sensors 548
Table 194: Applications and benefits of graphene in sensors 550
Table 195: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors 551
Table 196: Comparison of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and graphene biosensor 555
Table 197: Market size for graphene in sensors 557
Table 198: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in the sensors market 558
Table 199: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2027 560
Table 200: Market challenges rating for graphene in the sensors market 561
Table 201: Types of smart textiles 564
Table 202: Smart textile products 565
Table 203: Market drivers for use of graphene in smart textiles and apparel 566
Table 204: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications 568
Table 205: Desirable functional properties for the textiles industry afforded by the use of nanomaterials 571
Table 206: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel 573
Table 207: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 575
Table 208: Market opportunity assessment for graphene in smart textiles and apparel 578
Table 209: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027 578
Table 210: Market impediments for graphene in textiles 579
Table 211: Market challenges for graphene in textiles and apparel 580
Table 212: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2027 582
Table 213: Graphene producers and types produced 586
Table 214: Graphene producers target market matrix 590
Table 215: Graphene industrial collaborations, licence agreements and target markets 670
Table 216: Graphene product developers and end users target market matrix 674

FIGURES

Figure 1: Graphene production capacity, current and planned 68
Figure 2: Demand for graphene, 2010-2027 69
Figure 3: Vittoria bike tires incorporating graphene 70
Figure 4: Demand for graphene, by market, 2027 73
Figure 5: Global government funding for graphene in millions USD to 2017 79
Figure 6: Global consumption of graphene 2016, by region 89
Figure 7: 15-inch single-layer graphene sheet being prepared in the Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 93
Figure 8: Graphene layer structure schematic 100
Figure 9: Graphite and graphene 101
Figure 10: Graphene and its descendants: top right: graphene; top left: graphite = stacked graphene; bottom right: nanotube=rolled graphene; bottom left: fullerene=wrapped graphene 102
Figure 11: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4) 105
Figure 12: Green-fluorescing graphene quantum dots 107
Figure 13: Graphene quantum dots 108
Figure 14: Graphene can be rolled up into a carbon nanotube, wrapped into a fullerene, and stacked into graphite 110
Figure 15: Schematic of 2-D materials 117
Figure 16: Black phosphorus structure 119
Figure 17: Black Phosphorus crystal 120
Figure 18: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation 122
Figure 19: Graphitic carbon nitride 126
Figure 20: Structural difference between graphene and C2N-h2D crystal: (a) graphene; (b) C2N-h2D crystal Credit: Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology 127
Figure 21: Schematic of germanene 128
Figure 22: Graphdiyne structure 131
Figure 23: Schematic of Graphane crystal 134
Figure 24: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride 136
Figure 25: BN nanosheet textiles application 138
Figure 26: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide 139
Figure 27: SEM image of MoS2 140
Figure 28: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor 141
Figure 29: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge 142
Figure 30: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulfide 144
Figure 31: Silicene structure 145
Figure 32: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate 146
Figure 33: Silicene transistor 146
Figure 34: Crystal structure for stanene 149
Figure 35: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111) 149
Figure 36: Schematic of tungsten diselenide 151
Figure 37: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe) 154
Figure 38: Fabrication methods of graphene 160
Figure 39: Graphene synthesis methods 162
Figure 40: TEM micrographs of: A) HR-CNFs; B) GANF® HR-CNF, it can be observed its high graphitic structure; C) Unraveled ribbon from the HR-CNF; D) Detail of the ribbon; E) Scheme of the structure of the HR-CNFs; F) Large single graphene oxide sheets derived from GANF 163
Figure 41: Graphene nanoribbons grown on germanium 166
Figure 42: Schematic illustration of the main graphene production techniques 169
Figure 43: Graphene synthesis-CVD technique 170
Figure 44: (a) Graphene powder production line in The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co Ltd (b) Graphene film production line of Wuxi Graphene Films Co Ltd 172
Figure 45: Illustrative procedure of the Scotch-tape based micromechanical cleavage of HOPG 175
Figure 46: Roll-to-roll graphene production process 177
Figure 47: Schematic of roll-to-roll manufacturing process 177
Figure 48: Microwave irradiation of graphite to produce single-layer graphene 179
Figure 49: Schematic of typical commercialization route for graphene producer 183
Figure 50: Published patent publications for graphene, 2004-2014 192
Figure 51: Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for graphene 195
Figure 52: Global market for graphene 2010-2027 in tons/year 251
Figure 53: 3D Printed tweezers incorporating Carbon Nanotube Filament 263
Figure 54: Demand for graphene in 3-D printing (tons), 2018-2027 266
Figure 55: Graphene Adhesives 269
Figure 56: Potential addressable market for graphene in adhesives 273
Figure 57: Demand for graphene in adhesives (tons), 2018-2027 274
Figure 58: Graphene aircraft 278
Figure 59: Potential addressable market for graphene in aerospace 282
Figure 60: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in aerospace 283
Figure 61: Demand for graphene in aerospace (tons), 2018-2027 284
Figure 62: Graphene enhanced aircraft cargio container 286
Figure 63: Graphene-based automotive components 290
Figure 64: Antistatic graphene tire 291
Figure 65: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector 294
Figure 66: Potential addressable market for graphene in the automotive sector 296
Figure 67: Demand for graphene in automotive(tons), 2018-2027 297
Figure 68: Supercar incorporating graphene 299
Figure 69: Graphene tire 300
Figure 70: Heat transfer coating developed at MIT 308
Figure 71: Water permeation through a brick without (left) and with (right) “graphene paint” coating 313
Figure 72: Four layers of graphene oxide coatings on polycarbonate 316
Figure 73: Global Paints and Coatings Market, share by end user market 317
Figure 74: Graphene based anti-corrosion steel coatings 322
Figure 75: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market 324
Figure 76: Potential addressable market for graphene in the coatings market 325
Figure 77: Demand for graphene in coatings (tons), 2018-2027 326
Figure 78: Potential addressable market for graphene in composites 338
Figure 79: Potential addressable market for graphene in the composites market 339
Figure 80: Demand for graphene in composites (tons), 2018-2027 340
Figure 81: Moxi flexible film developed for smartphone application 348
Figure 82: Flexible graphene touch screen 348
Figure 83: Galapad Settler smartphone 349
Figure 84: Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) using graphene electrode 350
Figure 85: Graphene electrochromic devices Top left: Exploded-view illustration of the graphene electrochromic device The device is formed by attaching two graphene-coated PVC substrates face-to-face and filling the gap with a liquid ionic electrolyte 352
Figure 86: Flexible mobile phones with graphene transparent conductive film 353
Figure 87: Foldable graphene E-paper 353
Figure 88: Covestro wearables 355
Figure 89: Softceptor sensor 358
Figure 90: BeBop Media Arm Controller 359
Figure 91: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor 359
Figure 92: C2Sense flexible sensor 360
Figure 93: Wearable gas sensor 362
Figure 94: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves 363
Figure 95: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System 363
Figure 96: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system 364
Figure 97: Potential addressable market for graphene in the flexible electronics, wearables, conductive films and displays market 367
Figure 98: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by application, billions $ 368
Figure 99: Demand for graphene in flexible electronics (tons), 2018-2027 369
Figure 100: Global transparent conductive electrodes market forecast by materials type, 2012-2027, millions $ 370
Figure 101: Schematic of the wet roll-to-roll graphene transfer from copper foils to polymeric substrates 372
Figure 102: The transmittance of glass/ITO, glass/ITO/four organic layers, and glass/ITO/four organic layers/4-layer graphene 373
Figure 103: BGT Materials graphene ink product 379
Figure 104: Printed graphene conductive ink 380
Figure 105: Flexible RFID tag 380
Figure 106: Textiles covered in conductive graphene ink 383
Figure 107: Enfucell Printed Battery 385
Figure 108: Graphene printed antenna 385
Figure 109: Printed antennas for aircraft 386
Figure 110: Vorbeck Materials conductive ink products 387
Figure 111: Potential addressable market for graphene in the conductive ink market 388
Figure 112: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2027 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types 390
Figure 113: Demand for graphene in conductive ink (tons), 2018-2027 392
Figure 114: Graphene IC in wafer tester 397
Figure 115: A monolayer WS2-based flexible transistor array 397
Figure 116: Schematic cross-section of a graphene based transistor (GBT, left) and a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET, right) 398
Figure 117: Potential addressable market for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits 402
Figure 118: Potential addressable market for graphene in the transistors and integrated circuits market 403
Figure 119: Demand for graphene in transistors and integrated circuits (tons), 2018-2027 404
Figure 120: The GF1 Graphene Watch 408
Figure 121: Graphene oxide-based RRAm device on a flexible substrate 410
Figure 122: Layered structure of tantalum oxide, multilayer graphene and platinum used for resistive random access memory (RRAM) 411
Figure 123: A schematic diagram for the mechanism of the resistive switching in metal/GO/Pt 411
Figure 124: Carbon nanotubes NRAM chip 412
Figure 125: Stretchable SWCNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics 412
Figure 126: Demand for graphene in memory devices (tons), 2018-2027 414
Figure 127: Hybrid graphene phototransistors 419
Figure 128: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors 420
Figure 129: Flexible PEN coated with graphene and a QD thin film (20nm) is highly visibly transparent and photosensitive 420
Figure 130: Demand for graphene in photonics (tons), 2018-2027 423
Figure 131: The SkelStart Engine Start Module 2.0 based on the graphene-based SkelCap ultracapacitors 427
Figure 132: Energy harvesting textile 430
Figure 133: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery 433
Figure 134: Printed 1.5V battery 435
Figure 135: H600 concept car 437
Figure 136: Anion concept car 437
Figure 137: Potential addressable market for graphene in the thin film, flexible and printed batteries market 440
Figure 138: Demand for graphene in batteries (tons), 2018-2027 441
Figure 139: Skeleton Technologies ultracapacitor 449
Figure 140: Zapgo supercapacitor phone charger 451
Figure 141: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor 452
Figure 142: Demand for graphene in supercapacitors (tons), 2018-2027 455
Figure 143: Solar cell with nanowires and graphene electrode 460
Figure 144: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper 462
Figure 145: Potential addressable market for graphene in photovoltaics 465
Figure 146: Demand for graphene in photovoltaics (tons), 2018-2027 466
Figure 147: Demand for graphene in fuel cells (tons), 2018-2027 473
Figure 148: LG OLED flexible lighting panel 476
Figure 149: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight 476
Figure 150: Demand for graphene in lighting (tons), 2018-2027 479
Figure 151: Schematic of boron doped graphene for application in gas sensors 483
Figure 152: Directa Plus Grafysorber 486
Figure 153: Nanometer-scale pores in single-layer freestanding graphene membrane can effectively filter NaCl salt from water 487
Figure 154: Demand for graphene in oil and gas (tons), 2018-2027 491
Figure 155: Degradation of organic dye molecules by graphene hybrid composite photocatalysts 497
Figure 156: Graphene anti-smog mask 498
Figure 157: Demand for graphene in filtration (tons), 2018-2027 501
Figure 158: Graphene filtration membrane 503
Figure 159: Graphene Frontiers’ Six™ chemical sensors consists of a field effect transistor (FET) with a graphene channel Receptor molecules, such as DNA, are attached directly to the graphene channel 514
Figure 160: Graphene-Oxide based chip prototypes for biopsy-free early cancer diagnosis 515
Figure 161: Connected human body 517
Figure 162: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor 517
Figure 163: Graphene-based E-skin patch 519
Figure 164: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs 521
Figure 165: Graphene medical patch 522
Figure 166: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer 523
Figure 167: Mimo baby monitor 523
Figure 168: Nanowire skin hydration patch 524
Figure 169: Wearable sweat sensor 524
Figure 170: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor 525
Figure 171: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $ 528
Figure 172: Global medical and healthcare smart textiles and wearables market, 2015-2027, billions $ 528
Figure 173: Potential addressable market for graphene-enabled applications in the biomedical and healthcare market 531
Figure 174: Demand for graphene in life sciences and medical (tons), 2018-2027 532
Figure 175: Demand for graphene in lubricants (tons), 2018-2027 541
Figure 176: Demand for graphene in rubber and tires (tons), 2018-2027 545
Figure 177: GFET sensors 553
Figure 178: First generation point of care diagnostics 554
Figure 179: Graphene Field Effect Transistor Schematic 555
Figure 180: Potential addressable market for graphene in the sensors market 559
Figure 181: Demand for graphene in sensors (tons), 2018-2027 560
Figure 182: Conductive yarns 574
Figure 183: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $) 575
Figure 184 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016 576
Figure 185: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, conservative estimate 577
Figure 186: Global market revenues for nanotech-enabled smart clothing and apparel 2014-2021, in US$, optimistic estimate 577
Figure 187: Demand for graphene in textiles (tons), 2018-2027 579
Figure 188: Demand for graphene in cement (tons), 2018-2027 583
Figure 189: Graphene added to cement 584

Date of Publication:
May 11, 2018
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
767 Pages