Rare Earth Elements in High-Tech Industries: Market Analysis And Forecasts Amid China's Trade Embargo

Rare Earth Elements in High-Tech Industries: Market Analysis And Forecasts Amid China's Trade Embargo

Information Network, Date of Publication: Jun 29, 2020, 279 Pages

Rare Earth Elements in High-Tech Industries

At the time of the alleged 2010 embargo, Chinese firms accounted for 97 percent of rare-earth oxide production and a large fraction of the processing business that turns these into rare earth metals, alloys, and products like magnets. This near-monopoly was in a market with surging demand and intense political resonance in consuming countries. And the most dependent countries—primarily Japan and the United States, but also several European states—happened to be those over which China most wanted influence. Prices soared in the REE spot market in the wake of China’s 2010 export cuts, especially as downstream users—companies that incorporate REEs into other products—filled inventories to protect themselves from future disruptions.

Downstream markets are already adjusting to the changing supply picture through normal market mechanisms. This report presents a forecast of REE for a variety of technologies: semiconductors, HDDs, FPDs, mobile devices, LEDs, and alternative energy


Chapter 1   Introduction                                   

1.1   Rare Earth Element Characteristics                          
1.2   Rare Earth Element Resources                                
1.3   Overview of Rare Earth Element Applications                 

Chapter 2. Rare Earth Industry                                    

2.1   China' Rare Earth Industry                                   
      2.1.1 China's Production                                     
      2.1.2 China Rare Earth Production Structure                  
      2.1.3 China Rare Earth Consumption Structure                 
      2.1.4 China Export of Rare Earths                            
      2.1.5 Recent Activities Of China's Rare Earth Industry     Consolidation Of China's Rare Earth Industry  
2.2   Rest Of World's Rare Earth Industry                          
      2.2.1 UNITED STATES                                         
   Mountain Pass                                  
   Utah Rare Earth Project                        
   Bear Lodge Rare-Earth Project                  
   Elk Creek                                      
   Bokan-Dotson Ridge                             
   Diamond Creek                                  
   Lemhi Pass                                     
      2.2.2 CANADA                                                 
   MacLeod Lake Project                           
   Hoidas Lake                                    
   Benjamin River Project                         
   Douglas River Project                          
   Nechalacho Rare Earth Element Project                                
   Archie Lake                         
   Bulstrode Rare Earth Property       
   Mount Copeland                      
   Cross Hills Newfoundland            
   Strange Lake                       
   Grevet REE                         
   Turner Falls                       
      2.2.3 SOUTH AFRICA                                 
   Steenkampskraal Mine South Africa   
      2.2.4 AUSTRALIA                                    
   Nolans Bore                         
   Mount Weld                          
   Jungle Well/ Laverton               
      2.2.5 GREENLAND                                    
   Kvanefjeld Project                  
      2.2.6 ARGENTINA                                    
   Cueva del Chacho                    
   Susques Property - Jujuy Province   
   John Galt Project                   
      2.2.7 INDIA                                        
   Indian Rare Earth                   
      2.2.8 RUSSIA                                       
   Kutessay II                        
2.3   Profiles of Mining Corporations                   

Chapter 3   Rare Earth Market Analysis                  

3.1   Overview                                          
3.2   Rare Earth Market                                  
      3.2.1 Domestic Production and Consumption          
      3.2.2 China Production and Consumption            
3.3   Global Rare Earth Market Analysis                 

Chapter 4   Impact on Hi-Tech Applications                   

4.1   Semiconductors                                          
      4.1.1 Technology Impacted                             High-k Dielectrics                            Polishing Powders                               
      4.1.2 Rare Earth Material Used                          
      4.1.3 Market Forecast of Impacted Semiconductor
             Devices/Materials ­              
4.2   Hard Disk Drives (HDDs)                                 
      4.2.1 Technology Impacted                             Neo Magnets for HDDs                          High Strength Glass Substrates                Polishing Materials                             
      4.2.2 Rare Earth Material Used                         
      4.2.3 Market Forecast of Impacted HDD
             Devices/Materials ­           
4.3   Displays - FPD/CRT                                      
      4.3.1 Technology Impacted                             Polishing Materials                           Phosphors                                       
      4.3.2 Rare Earth Material Used                          
      4.3.3 Market Forecast of Impacted CRT/FPD
4.4   Mobile and Mobile Internet Devices                      
      4.4.1 Technology Impacted                               
      4.4.2 Rare Earth Material Used                          
      4.4.3 Market Forecast of Impacted Mobile
             Devices/Materials ­                
4.5   Solid State Lighting ­ LED/CFL                          
      4.5.1 Technology Impacted                             Phosphors for Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)    Phosphors for Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)   
      4.5.2 Rare Earth Material Used                                                   
      4.5.3 Market Forecast of Impacted LED Devices/Materials                      
4.6   Green Technology                                              
      4.6.1 Technology Impacted                                   Rare Earths for Hybrid Vehicle Batteries (NiMH)     Neo Magnets for Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motors and Brakes                                           Neo Magnets for Wind Turbines                       Catalytic Converter for Automobiles                   
      4.6.2 Rare Earth Material Used                                
      4.6.3 Market Forecast of Impacted Green
             Devices/Materials ­                    
      4.6.4 Other Green Technologies  
Chapter 5. U.S Strategic Metal Perspective                         

5.1   The Application of Rare Earth Metals in National Defense     
5.2   Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential                
5.3   Supply Chain Issues                                          
5.4   Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress                  
      5.4.1 H.R. 6160, Rare Earths And Critical Materials
      Revitalization Act Of 2010                                   
      5.4.2 H.R. 4866, the Rare Earths Transformation Act of 2010   
      5.4.3 S. 3521, Rare Earths Supply Technology
      and Resources Transformation Act of 2010                      
      5.4.4 H.R. 5136, the Fiscal Year 2011 National Defense Authorization Act                                             
      5.4.5 P.L. 111-84, the Fiscal Year 2010 National Defense Authorization Act                                            
5.5   Possible Policy Options                                       
      5.5.1 Authorize And Appropriate Funding For A USGS Assessment                                                    
      5.5.2 Support And Encourage Greater Exploration For REE       
      5.5.3 Challenge China On Its Export Policy                                                   
      5.5.4 Establish A Stockpile                               

Chapter 6   European Strategic Metal Perspective                

6.1   Assessing Criticality                                      
      6.1.1 Geological And Technical Availability                
      6.1.2 Key Terms And Definitions                            
      6.1.3 Geological Availability                              
      6.1.4 Technological Development                            
      6.1.5 Geopolitical-Economic Availability                  
6.2   Results And List Of Critical Raw Materials                
      6.2.1 Economic Importance And Supply Risks                
      6.2.2 Future Perspectives On Raw Material Demand ­Implications Of Technological Change.                      
      6.2.3 Emerging technologies and raw materials             

Chapter 7   Rebuilding a U.S. Supply Chain

7.1   Non-Chinese Sources of New Rare Earths                    
7.2   Impact of Price Hikes by Application                       


1.1   Selected Rare Earth Element Bearing Products              
1.2   Rare Earths Elements And Some Of Their End Uses           
2.1   Rare Earth Prices                              
2.2   Global Capacity Of Rare Earth Oxides ­            
2.3   Global Capacity Of Rare Earth Oxides ­              
3.1   U.S. Rare Earth Statistics ­                   
3.2   Rare Earth Prices ­                              
3.3   Rare Earth Elements: World Production And Reserves  
3.4   Rare Earth Oxide Capacity ­                                                     
3.5    Rare Earth Oxide Capacity ­                        
3.6    Rare Earth Oxide Demand-Supply ­                 
3.7    Rare Earth Composition By End Use                           
4.1    Properties Of Rare Earth Ln2O3 Oxides                       
4.2    Forecast of CMP Slurry                              
4.3    Demand of Rare Earths for Neo Magnets                       
4.4    Market Forecast for Hard Disk Drives by Size     
4.5    Market Forecast For Ceria Slurry For Glass Disks            
4.6    Demand of Rare Earths for Polishing Compounts for FPD/CRT   
4.7    Demand of Rare Earths for Phosphors for FPD/CRT             
4.8    Market Forecast of FPD/CRT by Type                 
4.9    Market Forecast of Mobile/MID by Type            
4.10   Demand of Rare Earths for Phosphors for CFLs                
4.11   Market forecast of Backlight LEDs by Application 
4.12   Demand of Rare Earths for NiMH Batteries                    
4.13   Demand of Rare Earths for Neo Magnets                       
4.14   Demand for Rare Earths for Automobile Catalysts             
5.1    Rare Earth Elements: World Production And Reserves     
6.1    Rare Earth Applications                                     
6.2    Global Metal Production                                


1.1    Periodic Table Of Rare Earth Elements                       
1.2    Abundance Of The Rare Earth Elements                        
1.3    Rare Earth Production Since 1950                            
1.4    China's Rare Earth Dominance                                
2.1    Rare Earth Proportion And Distribution In China             
2.2    Production Of Rare Earth Concentrates Since 1998            
2.3    Production Of Smelting Separation Products Since 1999       
2.4    Production Of Rare Earth Metals Since 1988                  
2.5    Production Of Rare Earth Oxides Since 1998                                                   
2.6    Consumption Of Rare Earths Since 1990                    
2.7    Consumption Structure Of China From 1988                 
2.8    Gross Volume Of Exports From 1979                        
2.9    Gross Value Of Exports From 1979                         
3.1    U.S. Distribution Of Refined Rare Earth Products ­   
3.2    Rare-Earth Price Index                     
3.3    Comparison Of Rare Earth Consumption .Between China And The World                                      
3.4    Global Supply-Demand Forecast                            
3.5    ROW Supply-Demand Forecast                               
3.6    REO Distribution By Weight                        
3.7    REO Distribution By Revenue                        
3.8    REO Distribution By Weight                       
3.9    REO Distribution By Revenue                       
3.10  REE Composition By End Use                               
3.11  Approximate Percentage Content Of Current And Prospective Ores                                         
4.1    Illustration of MOSFET and Gate Oxide                    
4.2    STI CMP Using Ceria                                      
4.3    HDD Drive and Neo Magnets                                
4.4    Glass Media Drive Forecast                      
4.5    Market Forecast For Neo Magnets                          
4.6    Illustration of Phosphors in PDPs                        
4.7    Market Forecast For Neo Magnets                          
4.8    Traditional Design of a 5-mm white LED                   
4.9    Scattered Photon Extraction white LED                    
4.10  Supply Chain for Fluorescent Lighting                    
4.11  Rare Earths Used in Hybrid Vehicles                      
4.12  Hybrid Vehicle Battery (NiMH)                            
4.13  Hybrid Vehicle Electric Motor and Brakes                 
4.14  Wind Turbine Motor                                       
4.15  Supply Chain for Permanent Magnets                       
4.16  Catalytic Converter for Automobiles                      
4.17  Forecast of Hybrid Vehicles                                                         
4.18  Forecast of Wind Generators             
6.1    Supply Of Strategic Metals To The European Union  

Date of Publication:
Jun 29, 2020
File Format:
PDF via E-mail
Number of Pages:
279 Pages